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This article presents a critical examination of biomechanics studies in the literature that could shed light on or contribute to the development of methods of managing intra-articular calcaneal fractures. An appreciation and understanding of such studies is predicated on a sound knowledge of a number of germane topics: the anatomy of the normal calcaneus, the pathomechanics of the calcaneus, fracture-classification schemes, and fracture-management methods. The first part of this review presents overviews of these topics. The biomechanics studies are then reviewed in detail. The article concludes with a description of research areas that might close the gaps identified in these studies.
Two-dimensional finite element analysis was used to obtain the magnitude and distribution of the stresses in models of two different designs of a flexible one-piece double-stemmed first metatarsophalangeal joint implant. The loading and constraint conditions have been reported by previous researchers to occur in vivo at the joint during the push-off phase of the normal walking cycle. Based on the results obtained, the authors recommend the direction that future studies in this area should take.
It has been widely reported that shoe inserts are an effective interventional modality either for the relief of discomfort to the feet associated with a variety of orthopedic disorders or conditions or simply for comfort. Results from many types of experimental tests have been used to obtain the shock absorption capacity of shoe insert materials. The authors contend in this study that, while shock absorption is a highly desirable property, it is by no means the only that should be used to characterize these materials. Thus, a new index of performance of these materials is proposed. This index is computed from data, obtained in a simple experimental test, on both the shock absorption and energy return performances of the insert material.