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- Author or Editor: Guillermo Lafuente x
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We performed a bibliographic review of the systems proposed by various researchers to evaluate physiologic metatarsal protrusion. The system of measurement devised by Hardy and Clapham to evaluate the protrusion between the first and second metatarsals was adapted to study the whole metatarsal parabola. We studied the five metatarsals of 52 normal feet. Mean metatarsal protrusion relative to the second metatarsal was +1.21% for the first metatarsal, −3.84% for the third metatarsal, −9.66% for the fourth metatarsal, and −16.91% for the fifth metatarsal. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(3): 238–244, 2006)
Background: We designed this study to verify whether the sesamoids of the first metatarsal head are longer than normal in feet with incipient hallux limitus, and whether feet with incipient hallux limitus are in a more proximal than normal sesamoid position.
Methods: In a sample of 183 dorsoplantar radiographs under weightbearing conditions (115 of normal feet and 68 of feet with slightly stiff hallux), measurements were made of the length of both the medial and the lateral sesamoids and of the distance between these bones to the distal edge of the first metatarsal head. These variables were compared between the normal and the hallux limitus feet. The relationship between these variables and the hallux dorsiflexion was also studied.
Results: We found significant differences between the two types of foot in the medial and lateral sesamoid lengths, but no significant difference in the distance between the sesamoids to the distal edge of the first metatarsal. A poor-to-moderate inverse correlation was found between hallux dorsiflexion and medial sesamoid length and between hallux dorsiflexion and lateral sesamoid length.
Conclusions: The length of the sesamoid bones of the first metatarsal head could be implicated in the development of the hallux limitus deformity. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(2): 123–129, 2008)
The aims of this study were to determine whether individuals with mild hallux limitus show a diminished capacity of internal rotation of the lower limb compared with those without hallux limitus and whether individuals with mild hallux limitus show an increased foot progression angle.
In 80 study participants (35 with normal feet and 45 with mild hallux limitus), the capacity of internal rotation of the lower limb (internal rotational pattern), hallux dorsiflexion, and the foot progression angle were measured. The values for internal rotational pattern and foot progression angle were compared between the two study groups, and the correlations between these variables were studied.
The capacity of internal rotation of the lower limb was significantly lesser in patients with mild hallux limitus (P < .0001). There was no significant difference in foot progression angle between the two groups (P = .115). The Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.638 (P < .0001) for the relationship between internal rotational pattern and hallux dorsiflexion.
Patients with mild hallux limitus had a lesser capacity of internal rotation of the lower extremity than did individuals in the control group. The more limited the internal rotational pattern of the lower limb, the more limited was hallux dorsiflexion. The foot progression angle was similar in both groups. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(6): 467–474, 2011)
Background: Orthotic devices are used to help children progressively acquire a more physiologic walking pattern.
Methods: To determine the effect of an orthotic device with an out-toeing wedge along with a physiologic shoe as treatment for in-toed gait, angle of gait was measured in 48 children aged 3 to 14 years with in-toed gait. The following comparisons were made: angle of gait in children unshod versus children shod without treatment, angle of gait in children shod without treatment versus children shod plus orthoses, and angle of gait in children unshod versus children shod plus orthoses.
Results: Using a correctly fitting shoe increased the angle of gait in a nonsignificant manner, but a significant increase was revealed in the comparison of the angle of gait in children unshod versus children under treatment. The results showed that the behavior in boys and girls was similar to that in the total sample. Regarding side, the corrective effect of the orthotic device was similar in the two feet. However, the data showed a greater corrective effect of the shoe in the right foot.
Conclusions: Orthotic devices with out-toeing wedge combined with correctly fitting shoes, as well as shoes alone, are useful tools in the treatment of in-toed gait in children. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(6): 472–478, 2010)
The aim of this study was to determine whether the treatment of abnormal subtalar pronation restores functional (as opposed to structural) limited dorsiflexion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (functional hallux limitus). We studied 16 feet of eight individuals with abnormal subtalar pronation. Orthoses were made for all of the feet, and hallux dorsiflexion was measured during weightbearing. Each patient was unshod without the orthosis, unshod with the orthosis fitted on the same day, and unshod with the orthosis fitted approximately 5 months later. The results suggest that in functional hallux limitus caused by abnormal subtalar pronation, hallux dorsiflexion will gradually be restored by the use of foot orthoses to control the abnormal subtalar pronation. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(4): 283–289, 2006)
This study compares different lower-limb length measurements using tests of lower-limb upright full-length radiography and anteroposterior radiography of load-bearing hips.
Forty-seven consecutive individuals aged 17 to 61 years (mean ± SD, 31.47 ± 11.42 years) voluntarily took part in the study; 23 (48.9%) were women and 24 (51.1%) were men. All individuals presenting a difference of 5 mm or greater between both lower limbs quantified with a tape measure were included. All of the participants signed an informed consent form to take part in the study. Two anteroposterior load-bearing radiographs were taken: one of the hip and an upright full-length radiograph of the lower limbs. Lower-limb–length discrepancy was quantified by taking different reference points. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability was assessed for each radiographic measurement. Any correlation between the different measurements were also verified.
Interobserver and intraobserver reliability was high for all of the measurements because the intraclass correlation was greater than 0.75 in all of the cases. There was a strong and positive correlation between the different measurements because when performing bivariate correlations with the Pearson correlation coefficient, positive values close to 1 were found.
In this study, the different reference points reported in the upright full-length radiograph in addition to the hip radiographs are useful for assessing lower-limb–length discrepancy. The results showed that there is a correct correlation between the different measurements.
Brachymetatarsia is abnormal anatomical shortness of the metatarsals. We describe a new diagnostic test that enables quantification of the shortening of the fourth metatarsal in brachymetatarsia. The metatarsodigital alterations most frequently related to this deformity are presented. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(4): 347–352, 2004)