The os trigonum is a frequently encountered accessory bone of the foot. It is located at the posterior aspect of the talus, and may appear either as a separate ossicle or fused to the talus. The separate ossicle may represent an accessory bone or a fracture of the posterior process (also called the trigonal process) of the talus. The author reviews the mechanism of injury and the diagnosis and treatment. A case report of a fracture of the trigonal process is presented.
The two-stage capsular closure modification of the V-Y capsulorrhaphy in hallux abducto valgus surgery is a technique for restoring the soft tissue anatomical relationships of the first metatarsophalangeal joint in a bunion deformity. The first stage of the V-Y capsulorrhaphy corrects the plantar and lateral deviation of the abductor hallucis tendon. The second stage of the V-Y capsulorrhaphy closure allows for the correction of abductus and valgus rotation of the hallux. Inasmuch as each element of the soft tissue deformity in hallux abducto valgus deformity is corrected individually, greater precision can be applied to each constituent of the hallux abducto valgus deformity.