You are looking at 1 - 3 of 3 items for
- Author or Editor: James S. Johnston x
- Refine by access: All Content x
Implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) significantly increased the life expectancy of those living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Except for prevalence, scientific reports regarding clinical manifestations of plantar verrucae in the post-HAART era are lacking. The objective of this study was to compare clinical manifestations of plantar verrucae between HIV-infected and noninfected individuals and then to compare these findings with those observed before the implementation of HAART.
Nineteen patients with plantar verrucae (ten with HIV and nine without HIV) were examined to determine the size, number, and clinical type of verrucae present. The two groups were first compared with each other and then with previously collected data from a similar analysis conducted in 1995, before the implementation of HAART. Statistical significance was determined using the Fisher exact test or the Wilcoxon rank sum test.
No significant differences were observed in the size, number, or clinical type of verrucae between HIV-negative and HIV-positive patients. Compared with the 1995 data, there was a significant decrease in the number of verrucae lesions per individual and a nonsignificant decrease in the average size of verrucae in HIV-positive patients.
Study results indicate that the implementation of HAART has impacted the clinical manifestations of plantar verrucae in HIV-positive individuals. Further analyses with a larger number of patients are required to confirm and substantiate these findings.
Although an increased prevalence of plantar verrucae has been associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, human papillomavirus (HPV) typing studies have not been published about this patient population. We sought to determine the prevalence of HPV types in plantar verrucae of HIV-positive (HIV+) and HIV-negative (HIV–) individuals.
Thirty-nine plantar verruca lesions in 17 individuals were examined. Nine participants were HIV+ and eight were HIV–. Detection of HPV was performed by polymerase chain reaction using two sets of primers: MY09/MY11. The type of HPV was determined by hybridization to 38 different HPV types. Clinical types of verrucae were correlated to the HPV strain identified in each lesion.
Of the 39 plantar verruca samples, 38 typed to HPV-2, HPV-27, and HPV-57 strains in HIV+ and HIV– individuals. Specifically, a large proportion of the samples from HIV– individuals typed as HPV-27 (87.5%), and HPV-2 was the predominant type identified in HIV+ individuals (50%). No rare or atypical HPV types were found in either group. We identified HPV-2 and HPV-27 in 96% of verruca plantaris clinical type. Mosaic warts typed to HPV-27 and HPV-57, and 80% of punctate verrucae typed to HPV-57.
This study presents an increased prevalence of HPV-2, HPV-27, and HPV-57 in plantar verrucae in this study population and provides insight into the occurrence of these types in HIV+ and HIV– individuals.
Background: Verrucae are caused by infection of epidermal keratinocytes by human papilloma virus (HPV). Although there are currently more than 100 known types of HPV, certain lesions are consistently caused by infection with one or a few types. Recent studies have identified the presence of unusual HPV types in anogenital and cervical condylomata (warts) of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although cutaneous verrucae are typically caused by HPV-1, HPV-2, and HPV-4, infection with HIV may predispose an individual to infection with an unusual HPV type.
Methods: We report the detection of a rare HPV type in a clinically aggressive plantar verruca from an HIV-positive patient. The viral DNA from this specimen was analyzed to identify the predominant HPV type. To complete this analysis, HPV DNA was extracted from the formalin-fixed specimen, followed by polymerase chain reaction with consensus HPV primers and digestion with a specific group of restriction endonucleases. The fragments were separated on an agarose gel, and the restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern was compared with known patterns for identification of the specific HPV type.
Results: Identification of HPV-69, an HPV type previously reported to be rare and associated with dysplastic lesions, was confirmed by HPV DNA dot-blot hybridization with specific DNA probes for each known HPV type.
Conclusions: Plantar verrucae in HIV-positive patients may be associated with unusual HPV types and should be analyzed and treated aggressively given the potential for a more distinct clinical manifestation. Additional lesional analysis studies are needed. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(1): 8–12, 2009)