Precision in minimal-incision surgery allows surgeons to achieve accurate osteotomies and patients to avoid risks. Herein, a surgical guide for the foot is designed and validated in vitro using resin foot models for hallux abducto valgus surgery.
Three individuals with different experience levels (an undergraduate student, a master's student, and an experienced podiatric physician) performed an Akin osteotomy, a Reverdin osteotomy, and a basal osteotomy of the first metatarsal.
The average measurements of each osteotomy and the angle of the basal osteotomy do not reveal significant differences among the three surgeons. A shorter deviation from the planned measurements has been observed in variables corresponding to the Akin osteotomy (the maximum deviation in the measurement of the distance from the proximal medial end of the Akin osteotomy to the first metatarsophalangeal joint interline was 1.67 mm, and the maximum deviation from the proximal lateral end of the Akin osteotomy to the first metatarsophalangeal joint interline was 1.00 mm). As for the Reverdin osteotomies, the maximum deviations in the measurement of the distance from the proximal medial end of the osteotomy to the first metatarsophalangeal joint interline were 3.60 and 3.53 mm in the expert and undergraduate surgeons, respectively. All of the osteotomies were precise among the groups, reducing the learning curve to the maximum.
The three-dimensional–printed prototype has been proven effective in guiding surgeons to perform different types of osteotomies. Minimal deviations from the predefined osteotomies were found among the three surgeons.
Many people experience gastrocnemius tightness. Few studies demonstrate the relationship between gastrocnemius tightness and forefoot pathology. This study aimed to define the association between intractable plantar keratosis of the second rocker (IPK2) (also known as well-localized IPK or discrete keratosis) and metatarsalgia.
The Silfverskiöld (ST) and lunge (LT) tests, used for measuring ankle dorsiflexion, were applied to diagnose gastrocnemius tightness. An instrument for measuring accurate performance and the force to be applied (1.7–2.0 kg of force to the ankle dorsiflexion) complemented the ST for clinical diagnosis and to obtain repeatedly reliable results (the authors apply force manually, which is difficult to quantify accurately).
Of 122 patients studied, 74 were used to devise a prediction model from a logistic regression analysis that determines the probability of presenting gastrocnemius tightness in each test (LT and ST) with the following variables: metatarsalgia, IPK2, and maximum static pressure (baropodometry). The IPK2 plays the principal role in predicting this pathology, with the highest Wald values (6.611 for LT and 5.063 for ST). Metatarsalgia induces a somewhat lower change (66.7% LT and 64.3% ST). The maximum pressure of the forefoot is equally significant (P = .043 LT and P = .025 ST), taking α < .05 as the significance level.
The results of this validation report confirm that a model composed of metatarsalgia, IPK2, and maximum pressure in static acts as a predictive method for gastrocnemius tightness.