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A rare case of closed complete rupture of the flexor hallucis longus tendon with subsequent longitudinal tear of the flexor digitorum longus tendon is reported in a marathon runner. This is also a first case report of flexor hallucis longus transplant with cadaveric posterior tibial tendon allograft. Two minimal incisions distal and proximal to the malleolus allowed for tunneling with urethral dilators to open the tendon sheath for transplantation, avoiding the need for a large incision. Postoperatively, the patient regained active flexion at the interphalangeal joint of the left hallux. Four months after surgery, full range of motion was observed and dynamometric exam revealed 68% of the strength of the contralateral side. The patient was able to resume competitive running after the surgery and performed well in her age bracket.
Syringoid eccrine carcinoma is a very rare skin cancer. We present a case of a 22-year-old woman with a presentation of syringoid eccrine carcinoma in the subungual region of the hallux. This clinical case demonstrates our work-up that led to a proper diagnosis and management of this pathology. We discuss our surgical procedure of choice and the outcome. This report adds valuable information to a limited database of knowledge available on the diagnosis and management of syringoid eccrine carcinomas.
Ingrown toenails are one of the most common pathologic conditions encountered in podiatric medical practice. Many methods of treatment for ingrown toenails have been used and studied, including chemical matrixectomies, surgical approaches, and CO2 laser ablation. This study is a retrospective review of a new technique that consists of resection of the involved nail matrix using a No. 15 blade and controlled cauterization using a CO2 laser. The technique was performed on 381 painful ingrown toenails, and all of the patients were followed up postoperatively for an average of 34 months. The results showed minimal pain, a low recurrence rate, rapid return to activity, and good cosmesis. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(2): 175–179, 2005)
The purpose of this study was to determine whether changes in plantar fascia thickness are a reliable gauge of efficacy of treatment protocols for plantar fasciitis.
Thirty-nine feet (30 patients) with plantar fasciitis received an ultrasound examination to measure the thickness of the medial band of the plantar fascia. Each patient assessed his or her pain using the visual analogue scale. Following various treatments, a second ultrasound examination was performed and the thickness of the plantar fascia was again measured and subjective pain level assessed.
Twenty-nine feet (74.4%) showed a decrease in plantar fascia thickness and a decrease in pain. One foot (2.6%) experienced an increase in fascia thickness and reported an increase in pain. Four feet (10.3%) had an increase in thickness of the plantar fascia and reported no change in pain level. Three feet had minor increases in fascia thickness but reported a decrease in pain (7.7%). One foot (2.6%) had no change in fascia thickness but a decrease in pain and one foot (2.6%) had a decrease in the plantar fascia but no change in pain level. The average reduction in fascia thickness was 0.82 mm ±1.04 mm, correlating with an average improvement in pain of 3.64 ± 2.7 (P < 0.005).
This study provides evidence that changing thickness of the plantar fascia is a valid objective measurement to assess effectiveness of new or existing treatment protocols. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(5): 385–389, 2011)
In this retrospective analysis of 772 patients with symptomatic hallux limitus, 428 patients (55%) were successfully treated with conservative care alone; of these 428 patients, 362 (84%) were treated with orthoses. Corticosteroid injections and a change in shoes allowed 24 patients (6% of conservatively treated patients) and 42 patients (10%), respectively, to have less discomfort and return to previous activity levels. Overall, 47% of the patients in this analysis were successfully treated with orthoses. Surgical procedures were performed on 296 patients (38% of all patients) who did not respond to conservative care. In this analysis, 48 of the patients (6% of all patients) who did not respond to conservative care either refused surgery or were not surgical candidates. These data are intended to provide podiatric physicians with expected outcomes for conservative care of hallux limitus. The etiology, symptoms, conservative management, and surgical treatments of hallux limitus and hallux rigidus are also reviewed. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(2): 102-108, 2002)
Background: We sought to determine the incidence of tinea pedis in patients with otherwise asymptomatic pedal interdigital macerations. Both diabetic and nondiabetic populations were compared. Age and body mass index were also examined for their significance.
Methods: Fungal cultures of skin scrapings from 80 patients (77 male and 3 female; mean age, 65 years) with interdigital macerations were performed; 40 patients had previously been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and 40 did not have diabetes.
Results: Cultures revealed a 40% prevalence of tinea pedis in the total study population. The prevalence in the nondiabetic group was 37.5% and 42.5% for the diabetic group. This was not a statistically significant difference. Among patients with interdigital macerations that yielded positive fungal cultures, those in the nondiabetic group were 6.3 years older than those in the diabetic group. It was also observed that the nondiabetic patients with interdigital macerations yielding positive fungal cultures were 9.1 years older than patients with negative fungal cultures in the nondiabetic group.
Conclusion: The results of this study provide the practitioner with a guide for treating pedal interdigital macerations. Because the likelihood of a tinea pedis infection is 40%, it seems prudent to treat these macerations with an antifungal agent. In regard to age, the results suggest that as nondiabetic patients age, the likelihood of an otherwise asymptomatic interdigital maceration yielding a positive fungal culture increases, and that diabetic patients may be susceptible to interdigital fungal infections at a younger age than those without diabetes. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(5): 353–356, 2008)
Background: Transmetatarsal amputations are limb salvage surgical procedures that preserve limb length and functional ankle joints. Indications for transmetatarsal amputations include forefoot trauma, infection, and ischemia. Prior research demonstrates patients who undergo transmetatarsal amputations have a lower 2-year mortality rate compared to those who undergo more proximal amputations. The aim of this study was to determine whether primary closure of a transmetatarsal amputation is a superior treatment compared to secondary healing of a transmetatarsal amputation for forefoot abnormality of infection, gangrene, or chronic ulceration.
Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients aged 18 years or older requiring a transmetatarsal amputation because of forefoot abnormality between September of 2011 and December of 2019. Foot and ankle surgeons performed transmetatarsal amputations. Outcome variables measured included healing time of transmetatarsal amputation site, recurrent infection, recurrent gangrene, and the need for revision surgery or higher level amputations.
Results: Of the original 112 patients, 76 met the inclusion criteria; 47 of these had primary closure of transmetatarsal amputation and 29 of these had an open transmetatarsal amputation performed. Primarily closed transmetatarsal amputations resulted in a significantly greater overall healing rate of 78.8% (37 of 47) compared to open transmetatarsal amputations, with a healing rate of 37.9% (11 of 29) (P < .01). Closed transmetatarsal amputations were statistically significantly less likely than open transmetatarsal amputations to have recurrent gangrene, require revision pedal operations, or progress to higher level amputations.
Conclusions: Our research demonstrated that primary closure of transmetatarsal amputations is a superior treatment compared with secondary healing of transmetatarsal amputations in specific cases of infection, dry gangrene, or chronically nonhealing ulcerations.
Metatarsus Primus Elevatus Resolution After First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Arthroplasty
Eliminating Elevatus Without an Osteotomy–A Preliminary Study
Hallux limitus (HL) is the second-most common pathology associated with the first metatarsophalangeal joint. A common etiology believed to be associated with HL is metatarsus primus elevatus (MPE), although causation has been unsubstantiated by evidence. Historically, correction of MPE is surgically addressed with an osteotomy. However, some believe MPE is a secondary manifestation of HL due to retrograde pressure and lack of dorsiflexion at the first metatarsophalangeal joint. This study sought to determine whether MPE resolves spontaneously after first metatarsophalangeal joint arthroplasty and reinstitution of normal joint dorsiflexion.
Twenty-seven weightbearing lateral radiographs from patients with HL were reviewed before and after nonimplant first metatarsophalangeal joint arthroplasty. Radiographs were taken preoperatively and at postoperative visits 1 (mean, 2 weeks) and 2 (mean, 10 weeks). Measurements included first to second metatarsal elevation, Seiberg Index, first to fifth metatarsal distance, sagittal plane first to second metatarsal angle, Meary's angle, metatarsal declination angle, and hallux equinus angle.
Statistically significant improvement was seen at both postoperative visits in all of the previously mentioned measurements except first to fifth metatarsal distance, which was reduced but was not statistically significant.
Metatarsus primus elevatus was reduced significantly after first metatarsophalangeal joint arthroplasty. Resolution occurred rapidly and was maintained at the final postoperative visit. This could be due to MPE being a manifestation of HL and not a cause. Based on the results of this study, osteotomies may be unnecessary to surgically address MPE because it can spontaneously correct after reinstitution of first metatarsophalangeal joint motion.