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Regarding antibiotic-loaded cements, there is an abundant amount of literature regarding the antibacterial in vitro inhibitory and clinical applications for the treatment of osteomyelitis. The opposite can be said about literature regarding in vitro antifungal-loaded cement drug delivery for the treatment of fungal osteomyelitis.
Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida (ATCC 1023ATCC, Manassas, Virginia) were plated on antibiotic/antifungal-free plates. Voriconazole- and amphotericin B–impregnated calcium sulfate and hydroxyapatite (HA) disks, calcium sulfate + HA control disks, and control polymethylmethacrylate disks were laid separately onto plates separately inoculated with Aspergillus and Candida spp. The zones of inhibition obtained were measured in millimeters at 24, 36, and 96 hours.
Etest (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) results demonstrated susceptibility of Aspergillus and Candida to amphotericin B and voriconazole. The zone of inhibition data demonstrated that voriconazole and amphotericin B retained their antifungal activity when mixed into the calcium sulfate + HA bone void filler and eluted at biologically effective antifungal concentrations over 96 hours.
The calcium sulfate + HA bone void filler is a biocompatible ceramic carrier vehicle that can successfully deliver the antifungal drugs voriconazole and amphotericin B in the adjunctive treatment of fungal osteomyelitis. It is a reliable strategy in the local delivery of antifungal drugs to an area of osteomyelitis.
Background: Several absorbable and nonabsorbable antibiotic carrier systems are available in the adjunctive surgical management of osteomyelitis of the foot, ankle, and lower leg. These carrier systems have significant limitations regarding which antibiotics can be successfully incorporated into the carrier vehicle. The calcium sulfate and hydroxyapatite Cerament Bone Void Filler is a biocompatible, absorbable ceramic bone void filler that can successfully deliver multiple heat-stable and heat-unstable antibiotics that have not been generally used before with antibiotic beads in treating musculoskeletal infections.
Methods: Cerament Bone Void Filler discs with the antibiotics rifampin, vancomycin, tobramycin, cefazolin, cefepime hydrochloride, vancomycin-tobramycin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, and ticarcillin-clavulanate were tested in vitro against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Results: The zones of inhibition for the Cerament Bone Void Filler antibiotic discs plated against Staphylococcus aureus obtained were 33% to 222% greater than the minimum zones of inhibition breakpoints for bacteria susceptibility as defined by the standard set by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Cerament Bone Void Filler discs with the antibiotics plated against Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced zones of inhibition of 93% to 200% greater than the minimum zones of inhibition breakpoints for bacteria susceptibility as defined by the standard set by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.
Conclusions: The calcium sulfate and hydroxyapatite Cerament Bone Void Filler was an excellent carrier vehicle for multiple antibiotics creating in vitro significant zones of inhibition, thus demonstrating susceptibility against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which holds tremendous promise in treating osteomyeilits. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(2): 146–152, 2011)