A spectrum of techniques exists to measure ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion. However, information pertaining to the objective assessment of ankle joint dorsiflexion is controversial. Different study designs make comparisons of studies difficult which leads to measurement error. These errors can be related to the examiner, the subject, or the procedure. This author reviews the sources of measurement inaccuracies within the clinical setting and describes effective interventions used to reduce measurement error.
This study was performed to provide insight into the functioning of a selection of materials used in the fabrication of orthoses. A series of mechanical and physical tests was performed on five materials, under strict laboratory conditions. The results demonstrate that the polyurethane foams are the most promising material in the design of foot orthoses. The results also suggest that an agglomeration of properties, not just one specific property, can influence the behavior of materials.
The author provides insight into the functioning of materials used in shoe inserts. This study could be the basis for criteria with which to appraise materials that are in use today, and also to properly evaluate new materials before clinical trials.
The reliability of three commonly used techniques for measuring foot position--valgus index, navicular height, and arch height--was evaluated in a study involving 20 healthy subjects. The results demonstrated significant differences (P < .05) between two observers for all three techniques, although there were no significant differences between two visits for the same observer (P < .05). Secondary analysis demonstrated that navicular height yielded the highest degree of intraobserver and interobserver agreement. The results suggest that there is a wide variation in foot position in the general population, and that measurement error may result from difficulties in defining foot position, techniques used, and instrumentation.