This article discusses the classification and treatment of proximal diaphyseal fifth metatarsal fractures. There are two types of proximal diaphyseal fracture of the fifth metatarsal: the acute proximal diaphyseal fracture and the proximal diaphyseal stress fracture. Confusion between the two types of fractures is probably due to their similar location and the historical practice of referring to all fractures in this location as Jones fractures. Both fractures are prone to delayed union and require long periods of nonweightbearing immobilization or internal fixation for healing. However, because the mechanism of injury is different for each fracture, the treatment plan may need to be tailored to the particular type of fracture.
This paper reviews the literature relating to foot orthoses, in particular foot orthoses that attempt to alter biomechanical function. Whilst few well-controlled studies have been performed, the findings from the available literature are generally positive. The authors provide an overview of this literature and then summarise the findings. The literature is categorised into six research outcome areas: (i) patient satisfaction, (ii) pain and deformity, (iii) plantar pressures, (iv) position and motion, (v) muscle activity, and (vi) oxygen consumption. In addition, the difficulties associated with researching foot orthoses are discussed.