Accessory ossicles are usually benign radiographic findings. However, they may become clinically significant if they fracture or cause soft-tissue irritation. An os intermetatarseum is an uncommon ossicle found between the bases of the first and second metatarsals. This article reviews some of the theories relating to the development of this uncommon ossicle and describes its role as a possible etiology of metatarsus primus varus. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(3): 213–215, 2010)
Background: This pilot study explores the influence of preadmission data on podiatric medical school performance, specifically, the role of undergraduate institutional selectivity. This type of study has never been described in the podiatric medical education literature. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of preadmission data on 459 students from the graduating classes of 2000 to 2009 at the College of Podiatric Medicine and Surgery at Des Moines University.
Methods: Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the relationship between performance during the first year of podiatric medical school and a set of independent variables that represent certain preadmission student characteristics. Student demographic characteristics, such as race/ethnicity and sex, were also included in the regression analysis as control variables.
Results: The regression analysis revealed that ethnic origin, undergraduate grade point average, Medical College Admission Test biological science and verbal reasoning scores, and institutional selectivity together had a significant effect on the dependent variable (F = 18.3; P < .001). The variance for the independent variable/constant variables was 32%. Almost twice as many students were dismissed or withdrew in poor academic standing who attended undergraduate institutions in the lowest selectivity category.
Conclusions: This analysis revealed that in the College of Podiatric Medicine and Surgery, some preadmission variables, such as institutional selectivity, undergraduate grade point average, ethnic origin, and Medical College Admission Test verbal reasoning and biological science scores, are statistically significant in predicting first-year podiatric medical school grade point average. The selectivity of a student’s undergraduate institution should be considered when screening potential podiatric medical school applicants. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(6): 479–486, 2010)
Background: Des Moines University College of Podiatric Medicine and Surgery (CPMS) is implementing a cultural competency program for third-year podiatric medical students. This study assessed the effectiveness of the new educational program on cultural competency at CPMS by comparing pretest and posttest scores of students from the CPMS graduating classes of 2013 and 2014.
Methods: Students from the class of 2013 completed a 10-week online course on cultural competency, and the class of 2014 students did not. A pretest and posttest survey was used to assess cultural competency. The questions were categorized to assess either knowledge acquisition or attitudinal change. The 2013 students completed the pretest before the course and a posttest after completing the course. Without taking the course, 2014 students completed the same pretest and posttest separated by 10 weeks. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare the knowledge acquisition scores and attitudinal change scores.
Results: The repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant interaction effect of taking the attitudinal change course (F(1,77) = 15.2; P < .001). The course did not show a significant interaction on knowledge acquisition (F(1,77) = 0.72; P > .05).
Conclusions: The analysis showed a statistically significant improvement in attitudinal change scores. The study suggests that there needs to be a greater knowledge acquisition component to the cultural competency course at CPMS.
Background: We assessed the differences in podiatric medical students' clinical professionalism objective scores (CPOSs) by comparing a previous nonrubric evaluation tool with a more recently implemented objective-centered rubric evaluation tool. This type of study has never been performed or reported on in the podiatric medical education literature.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 89 third-year podiatric medical students between academic years 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. A Pearson correlation coefficient analysis was performed to compare CPOSs from the students' first (CPOS1) and second (CPOS2) rotations. A correlation analysis was performed comparing students' grade point averages (GPAs) with each of the individual CPOSs to verify the validity of the rubric evaluation tool.
Results: The Pearson correlation coefficients for the relationship between 2012 CPOS1 and CPOS2 and GPA were r = 0.233 (P ≤ .093) and r = 0.290 (P < .035) and for the relationship between 2013 CPOS1 and CPOS2 and GPA were r = 0.525 (P = .001) and r = 0.730 (P < .001).
Conclusions: These findings suggest that the use of a rubric in the evaluation of podiatric medical students' CPOSs is correlated with their GPAs, and CPOS2 demonstrated a higher correlation than CPOS1. We believe that implementation of the rubric evaluation tool has increased the accuracy of the evaluation of podiatric medical students with respect to CPOSs.
We sought to assess the perceptions that podiatric medical students had of the use of simulators after completing a third-year simulation rotation. This type of analysis has not been reported in the podiatric medicine educational literature. Another goal of this study was to influence the podiatric medical community to increase studies that help demonstrate the effectiveness of simulation in the podiatric medical curriculum.
Data from rotation evaluations of 44 students from the 2011-2012 academic year included student responses to 11 quantitative items and textual analysis of the students' written comments. Basic descriptive statistics of student responses to the quantitative items allowed for the analysis of central tendencies and variations. Textual analysis was performed on comments that were coded into themes based on similar properties and characteristics that the comments shared.
The analysis revealed that the simulation sessions were well liked. All of the students who responded to the survey rated the overall simulation rotation as “superior.” Textual analysis of the students' comments showed that students enjoy simulation as an educational tool because it helps enhance their clinical skills while also applying their didactic education to a practical experience. Clear evidence was presented that students want more cases and time to spend in the simulation laboratory to continue increasing their medical skills.
The student perception of simulation is that it is an effective educational tool. Further testing is needed to prove simulation efficacy in a podiatric medical curriculum.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate student learning outcomes in a flipped classroom versus a traditional classroom in a podiatric medical school. To date no published reports in podiatric medical schools have used the flipped classroom for the entirety of a medical school course.
Students from the class of 2017 completed the Emergency Medicine and Trauma course using traditional classroom lectures, and the class of 2018 used a flipped classroom approach. Each class took two assessments that contained 99 identical questions and completed a postcourse evaluation that contained student comments. A multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted to determine whether student performances were significantly affected by the differences in the teaching method. Student evaluation comments were analyzed using textual data analysis to determine the sentiments that students expressed regarding their exposure to the teaching method.
The multivariate analysis of covariance results revealed that students scored slightly lower on assessments during the flipped classroom delivery compared with the traditional classroom delivery, when adjusted for Medical College Admission Test scores and grade point average, but not significantly (P = .4340). Similarly, the sentiment analysis of student comments indicated that the average positive sentiment score for the flipped classroom delivery was higher but was not significant (P = .08914).
The analysis showed there was not a statistically significant change in examination scores based on teaching method. Sentiment analysis revealed that student sentiments were more positive with the flipped classroom group compared with the traditional lecture group, although not statistically significantly.
Plantar fasciotomies have become commonplace in podiatric and orthopedic medicine for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. However, several complications have been associated with plantar fascial release. It has been speculated that the cause of these complications is excessive release of the plantar fascia. The aim of this project was to determine whether the amount of fascia released, from medial to lateral, causes a significant increase in force in the remaining fascia. A dynamic loading system was developed that allowed a cadaveric specimen to replicate the stance phase of gait. The system was capable of applying appropriate muscle forces to the extrinsic tendons on the foot and replicating the in vivo timing of the muscle activity while applying force to the tibia and fibula from heel strike to toe-off. As the plantar fascia was sequentially released from medial to lateral, from intact to 33% released to 66% released, the real-time force and the duration of force in the remaining fascia increased significantly, and the force was shifted later in propulsion. In addition, the subtalar joint was unable to resupinate as the amount of fascia release increased, indicating a direct relationship between the medial band of the plantar fascia and resupination of the subtalar joint during late midstance and propulsion. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(6): 429-442, 2003)