Background: Diverse theories of orthoses application have evolved with the continual development of podiatric biomechanics and orthotic management. This theoretical disparity can lead to confusion in clinical, educational, and research situations. However, although approaches are varied, the common consensus is that foot orthoses outcomes are generally positive.
Methods: Three main podiatric theories exist: the foot morphology theory, the sagittal plane facilitation theory, and tissue stress theory. By researching the available literature, the perspectives of all three theories are summarized, emphasizing areas of conflict and agreement.
Results: Through a unified theory, we introduce a premise by which the similar orthotic outcomes obtained from the three main podiatric theories may be explained.
Conclusions: It remains up to the individual podiatric physician to decide which method to use to prescribe a foot orthosis. It may be of benefit to encompass all approaches rather than be dogmatic or exclusive. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(4): 317–325, 2009)
A medially deviated axis has been cited as an etiologic factor in increasing pronatory moments across the subtalar joint axis. Orthoses are often used to reduce these pronatory moments, aiming to off-load related injured structures. By aligning the posting or incline of an orthosis shell medial to the axis and parallel to it, the amount of moments applied will be theoretically greater than if prescribed at a less-than-optimal angle. We first published the medial oblique shell inclination as a method to increase supinatory moments to a medially deviated subtalar joint axis in 2008. This paper summarizes the theoretical reasons for use and introduces original methods of construction. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(6): 523–530, 2011)