This study examined the effects of two designs of rigid foot orthoses on plantar pressure measurements and identified differences between the devices. While wearing modified Root- and Blake-style orthoses, 27 subjects were examined with the Electrodynogram (EDG) in-shoe pressure measurement system. Reliability testing was performed on the EDG data. Significant changes were observed in the temporal parameters of gait when subjects wore the orthoses. When the devices were used, the duration of some of the components of stance phase was altered, and the initiation of loading beneath the medial forefoot was delayed. A reduction in the total duration of loading at discrete sites beneath the heel and forefoot was also observed. The effects of the two orthoses were similar, with only small differences observed between the devices. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 91(4): 184-193, 2001)
In the podiatric medicine profession, there are a variety of manual tasks that require precision and skill beyond what would be usually expected in everyday living. It is the expectation of employers, regulatory bodies, and the public that graduating podiatric physicians sufficiently meet certain minimum competencies for that profession, including those for manual skills. However, teaching and evaluation methods seem to be inconsistent between countries, institutions, and programs. This may be the consequence of uncertainty regarding the safest and most effective methods to do so. A review of available international literature pertaining to psychomotor learning across a range of health professions was undertaken. As a result of this broad review, we present herein the available evidence and make recommendations for the teaching of psychomotor skills in the podiatric medicine profession. Specific aspects considered important include methods of teaching, practice, and feedback.