A case of dislocated first and second metatarsophalangeal joints was reported along with the mechanics and mechanism of injury. The practitioner must be familiar with the mechanism of injury and radiographic classification to determine the proper indications for closed versus open reduction. The authors' review of the literature did not reveal a similar case involving a dislocation of the first and second metatarsophalangeal joints.
Reliability and normal values for the relaxed calcaneal stance position were determined in a nonclinic population of healthy adults and children (88 adults and 124 children) ranging in age from 5 to 36 years. The mean relaxed calcaneal stance position for adults was 6.07 degrees valgus (SD 2.71 degrees) (range, 1 degree varus to 14 degrees valgus). The mean relaxed calcaneal stance position for children was 5.6 degrees valgus (SD 2.9 degrees) (range, 6 degrees varus to 12 degrees valgus). There was no significant difference between the relaxed calcaneal stance positions of adults and children. In children the relaxed calcaneal stance position did not correlate with age, height, or weight and did not decrease with age to the theoretical normal value of 0 degree +/- 2 degrees as postulated by Root et al. The relaxed calcaneal stance position was found to be a reliable measurement; however, the theoretical normal value of 0 degree +/- 2 degrees was not found. The values reported in the present study correspond with the results of other empirical studies; thus the theoretical normal value for the relaxed calcaneal stance position of 0 degree +/- 2 degrees may be invalid.
A patient presented with monarthric ankle pain, which took 2 years to diagnose by numerous physicians and imaging and laboratory tests. A review of the differential diagnosis for monarthritic joint pain with guidelines for the work-up of the patient are presented.
A case of a child with Becker's muscular dystrophy is presented. Because of the genetic and clinical similarity with the more common Duchenne muscular dystrophy, these two diseases are compared. Since muscular dystrophy often initially presents with toe walking, flat-foot, and waddling gait, podiatrists may be the first physicians to see the child and provide early diagnosis.