Plethysmography is the observation and use of volume changes in physiologic entities. The most influential short-term effect is caused by the pulsatile flow of blood. Attempts to convert these pulsatile volume changes into minimum required blood flow per unit of time have been successful clinically. Plethysmography can be accomplished by encapsulating digits, limbs and entire bodies. Volume changes in the member cause volume changes in the fixed chamber which then influences an observational medium. Plethysmography can also be accomplished with a strain gauge, direct application of electricity to flesh, changing opacity effects on tissue, ultrasound (the Doppler effect) or the piezoelectric method. The piezoelectric plethysmograph was successfully tested on 55 patients.