Subungual exostosis (SE) is a benign, relatively uncommon bony growth underneath the nails of the distal phalanx of toes or fingers, with a majority on the toes. Clinically, it has two subvariants—protruded and nonprotruded growths from nail plates—which are treated differently. In this article, we report a case of protruded SE in a teenager with illustrative surgical excision. A 15-year-old boy presented with a painful growth on his right great toe of 6 months' duration. Physical examination revealed a 1-cm-diameter, solid, erythematous, rough, irregular growth penetrating through the skin along the dorsolateral nail bed of the right hallux with deformity of the lateral nail plate. Radiographs showed an elevated mass over the distal phalanx of the right lateral hallux. The mass was surgically excised and histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of SE. The patient had no relapse or recurrence at follow-ups of 6 and 18 months. Subungual exostosis is a relatively uncommon bony growth in the toes. Radiography is favored for the diagnosis. Complete surgical excision is the optimal treatment, with rare recurrence. It needs to be differentiated from other bony lesions, including bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation, myositis ossificans, fibro-osseous pseudotumor, osteochondroma, and enchondroma.
Eumycetoma, caused by fungi, is a neglected tropical disease. It is endemic in the “mycetoma belt” countries but rare in North America. We report a case of pedal eumycetoma in the state of Maryland. A 51-year-old male immigrant from Guatemala presented with multiple, enlarging nodules on the dorsal surface of his left great toe present for 1 year, and a new one in the left arch area present for 6 months. The nodular lesions were surgically excised in two separate operations. Pathologic evaluation of all nodules revealed eumycetomas characterized by the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon, showing an amorphous eosinophilic center filled with numerous fungal hyphae, observed on periodic acid-Schiff–stained slides, with a surrounding cuff of neutrophils. Polymerase chain reaction–based sequencing identified Cladosporium cladosporioides in the tissues. The patient was further treated with oral fluconazole for 2 months. The patient recovered well postoperatively and had no recurrence at 20-month follow-up. In conclusion, even though eumycetoma is regarded as a rare disease in North America, its incidence may be higher than reported because of millions of immigrants from endemic regions in the United States, which highlights the need to raise awareness of this devastating disease in the medical community. Eumycetoma needs to be differentiated from other infectious and noninfectious benign and malignant lesions. Optimal treatment includes surgical excision with antifungal therapy.