Previous studies have shown that age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) affect the amplitude of sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs), but the total effects of multiple factors and the most prominently affected nerves have not been elucidated. We systematically investigated the effects of these factors on motor and sensory nerves of the feet.
The amplitude, latency, and conduction velocity of compound muscle action potential (CMAP), SNAP, and mixed nerve action potential (MNAP) of the posterior tibial, calcaneal, distal posterior tibial, medial and lateral plantar, and sural nerves were measured in 30 healthy individuals (60 feet). The effects of age, sex, height, and BMI on each nerve were estimated by correlation and linear regression analyses.
The amplitude of posterior tibial CMAP and distal posterior tibial MNAP decreased with BMI. The amplitude of medial plantar MNAP and sural SNAP decreased with height. The conduction velocity of calcaneal SNAP and distal posterior tibial and lateral plantar MNAP decreased with height and BMI. The conduction velocity of medial plantar MNAP decreased only with height. The latency of posterior tibial CMAP increased with age and height. The latency of lateral plantar CMAP and calcaneal SNAP increased with height. The latency of lateral plantar MNAP increased with BMI.
The effects of age, sex, height, and BMI in foot nerve conduction studies are not identical. Height and BMI were shown to strongly affect motor, sensory, and mixed nerve conduction. Further investigations are needed. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(1): 43–49, 2013)
Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a serious health problem. Major amputation increases the risk of mortality in patients with DFU; therefore, treatment methods other than major amputation come to the fore for these patients. Graft applications create an appropriate environment for the reproduction of epithelial cells. Similarly, epidermal growth factor (EGF) also stimulates epithelization and increases epidermis formation. In this study, we aimed to compare patients with DFU treated with EGF and those treated with a split-thickness skin graft.
Patients who were treated for DFU in the general surgery clinic were included in the study. The patients were evaluated retrospectively according to their demographic characteristics, wound characteristics, duration of treatment, and treatment modalities.
There were 26 patients in the EGF group and 21 patients in the graft group. The mean duration of treatment was 7 weeks (4-8 weeks) in the EGF group and 5.3 weeks (4-8 weeks) in the graft group (P < .05). In the EGF group, wound healing could not be achieved in one patient during the study period. In the graft group, no recovery was achieved in three patients (14.2%) in the donor site. Graft loss was detected in four patients (19%), and partial graft loss was observed in three patients (14.2%). The DFU of these patients were on the soles (85.7%). These patients have multiple comorbidities.
EGF application may be preferred to avoid graft complications in the graft area and the donor site, especially in elderly patients with multiple comorbidities and wounds on the soles.
The decision to amputate or reconstruct after high-energy foot injuries is controversial. A 25-year-old male patient was admitted to our clinic with a complex injury to his left foot sustained during a mine explosion, and the second to fifth digits and metatarsals of the left foot had been traumatically amputated before admission to our facility. The complex left foot defect was reconstructed with an osteocutaneous fibula flap during a single session. An osteotomy was performed on the bone segment of the flap, and both lateral longitudinal and transverse arches were repaired. Both aesthetic and functional outcomes were very satisfactory, including independent ambulation, light jogging, and full performance of activities of daily living without limitation. Many factors, including comorbidities, should be considered during the decision-making process of amputating or reconstructing complex foot injuries.