An increased pronated foot posture is believed to contribute to patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), but the relationship between these phenomena is still controversial. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of PFPS in high school students and to compare passive internal and external hip rotation, passive dorsiflexion, and navicular drop and drift between healthy high school students and students with PFPS.
All 16- to 18-year-old students in a Danish high school were invited to join this single-blind case-control study (N = 299). All of the students received a questionnaire regarding knee pain. The main outcome measurements were prevalence of PFPS, navicular drop and drift, passive ankle dorsiflexion, passive hip rotation in the prone position, and activity level. The case group consisted of all students with PFPS. From the same population, a randomly chosen control group was formed.
The prevalence of knee pain was 25%. Of the 24 students with knee pain, 13 were diagnosed as having PFPS. This corresponds to a PFPS prevalence of 6%. Mean navicular drop and drift were higher in the PFPS group versus the control group (navicular drop: 4.2 mm [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.2–5.3 mm] versus 2.9 mm [95% CI, 2.5–3.3 mm]; and navicular drift: 2.6 mm [95% CI, 1.6–3.7 mm] versus 1.4 mm [95% CI, 0.9–2.0 mm]). Higher passive ankle dorsiflexion was also identified in the PFPS group (22.2° [95% CI, 18°–26°] versus 17.7° [95% CI, 15°–20°]).
This study demonstrated greater navicular drop, navicular drift, and dorsiflexion in high school students with PFPS compared with healthy students and highlights that foot posture is important to consider as a factor where patients with PFPS diverge from healthy individuals. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(3): 215–222, 2011)
Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a prevalent degenerative disease in older adults. Treatment strategies, including insoles, focus on reducing pain and physical disability. In medial KOA, insoles have been studied extensively with conflicting results, possibly due to heterogeneity in outcome measures and the intervention. We sought to investigate the effect of custom-made laterally wedged insoles on pain, function, and quality of life in patients with medial KOA.
Fifty-one consecutive patients with medial KOA were prescribed custom-made insoles with arch support and a 5.0° to 8.7° lateral wedge. At follow-up, 42 of the 51 participants (22 men; mean age, 63 years; mean Kellgren-Lawrence, 3.4) participated. Retrospectively, participants were asked to rate the pain intensity in their affected knee before and after the intervention measured on a visual analog scale after 30 min of physical activity (primary outcome), at rest, at night, and after 50 m of walking. Additionally, they completed the Oxford Knee Score and the EQ-5D. The paired-samples t test was applied in the statistics.
The visual analog scale score after 30 min of physical activity was significantly reduced after the intervention (mean, 3.3 cm; 95% confidence interval, 2.1–4.5 cm; P < .001). The same significant changes were found in all of the secondary outcomes.
There was a significant reduction in pain and improvements in function and quality of life with custom-made laterally wedged insoles with arch support in older adults with mild-to-severe medial KOA. The customization of laterally wedged insoles may be essential for the effect in medial KOA. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(1): 50–55, 2013)
Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common diagnosis. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive static navicular drop (ND) is related to the diagnosis. However, no studies have yet investigated ND and the velocity of ND during dynamic conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate ND characteristics in patients with MTSS in dynamic and static conditions.
In a case-control study, 14 patients diagnosed as having MTSS were included from an orthopedic outpatient clinic. A control group consisting of 14 healthy participants was matched regarding age, sex, and typical sporting activity. Navicular drop was evaluated during treadmill walking by a two-dimensional video analysis. Static foot posture, static ND, dynamic ND (dND), and velocity of dND were compared.
The two groups were comparable in relation to age, sex, height, weight, and foot size. No significant difference was found in static foot posture. Static ND showed a mean difference of 1.7 mm between the groups (P = .08). During treadmill walking, patients with MTSS had, on average, a 1.5-mm-larger dND (P =.004) and a 2.4-mm/sec-larger mean velocity of dND (P = .03).
Patients with MTSS display a larger ND and a higher ND velocity during treadmill walking. Increased ND velocity may be important to this condition. Future studies should include velocity of dND to investigate the mechanisms of dND in relation to overuse injuries. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(3): 205–212, 2012)