Osteochondromas are benign osseous tumors encountered most routinely by physicians responsible for diagnosing musculoskeletal disorders. Often, these osseous lesions are identified following symptoms related to their impingement on adjacent soft tissue or bone.
This article presents a unique case of an asymptomatic osteochondroma of the distal fibula in a 29-year-old Caucasian woman that manifested clinically as an impingement on the tibial nerve.
After resection of the osteochondroma, the patient's tarsal tunnel syndrome symptoms resolved.
This case report demonstrates a never-before-described osteochondroma of the distal fibula traversing posterior to the ankle joint and impinging on the tibial nerve. After resection, the patient's symptoms resolved.
The definition of equinus varies from less than 0° to less than 25° of dorsiflexion with the foot at 90° to the leg. Despite its pervasive nature and broad association with many lower-extremity conditions, the prevalence of ankle equinus is unclear. Furthermore, there are few data to suggest whether equinus is predominantly a bilateral finding or isolated to the affected limb only.
We conducted a prospective cohort study examining consecutive patients attending a single foot and ankle specialty practice. Participation involved an assessment of ankle joint range of motion by a single rater with more than 25 years of clinical experience. We defined ankle equinus as ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion less than or equal to 0° and severe equinus as less than or equal to –5°. Patients who had previously experienced an Achilles tendon rupture, undergone posterior group lengthening (ie, Achilles tendon or gastrocnemius muscle lengthening), or had conservative or surgical treatment of equinus previously were excluded.
Of 249 included patients, 61% were female and 79% nondiabetic. The prevalence of ankle equinus was 73% [183 of 249], and nearly all of these patients had bilateral restriction of ankle joint range of motion (prevalence of bilateral ankle equinus was 98.4% [180 of 183] among those with equinus). We also found that ankle equinus was more common in patients with diabetes, higher body mass indexes (BMIs), or overuse symptoms.
The prevalence of ankle equinus in this sample was higher than previously reported, and nearly all of these patients had bilateral involvement. These data suggest that many people attending foot/ankle specialty clinics will have ankle equinus, and select groups (diabetes, increased BMI, overuse symptoms) are increasingly likely.
The Evans osteotomy is a widely used procedure for the correction of adult and pediatric flexible flatfoot deformity. Locking plates are commonly used to stabilize the osteotomy and the allograft. However, there have been incidences of soft-tissue irritation caused by the hardware, requiring subsequent hardware removal. Therefore, we sought to review whether age, sex, or laterality of the procedure had any correlation with the rate of hardware removal.
A retrospective review was performed of 47 consecutive patients who underwent an Evans calcaneal osteotomy between October 1, 2013, and October 1, 2016. Data were collected and analyzed based on age, sex, laterality, and the need for hardware removal.
All of the 47 patients met the inclusion criteria. Seventy procedures were performed, and hardware removal was required in 16 patients and 21 feet (30%). The only statistically significant finding was that 11 females and only five males required either unilateral or bilateral hardware removal (P = .039). All 16 patients reported complete pain relief after hardware removal.
Females are twice as likely as males to develop symptoms after locking plate application over an Evans osteotomy and may require hardware removal. Despite the low-profile nature of the locking plate to fixate the Evans osteotomy, the hardware can be a source of significant pain. Patients, especially females, should be cautioned about potential hardware-related pain and a possible follow-up procedure to remove the hardware.
Nonoperational treatments for Morton's neuroma remain controversial because it is believed that sclerosing injections do not change nerve fibers on a cellular level. Up to 80% success rates with 4% ethanol sclerosing have been documented, and the remainder required operational removal of the painful nerve. We sought to evaluate the histologic characteristics of Morton's neuromas treated with 4% ethanol sclerosing injection versus corticosteroid injection alone in patients who required removal of the nerve for pain relief.
A retrospective histologic review was performed of 23 consecutive patients who were treated with either sclerosing injection or nonsclerosing injection and underwent nerve removal between September 1, 2012, and February 28, 2015.
Of 19 patients who met the inclusion criteria, eight received sclerosing injections and 11 received nonsclerosing injections. Intraneural fibrosis was more severe in the nonsclerosing injection group (P = .008).
Histologic changes are seen in Morton's neuroma with the use of 4% ethanol sclerosing injection, contrary to findings from previous studies.
BACKGROUND: Burnout and medical resident well-being has become an increasingly studied topic in medical degree (MD) and doctor of osteopathic medicine (DO) fields and specialties which has led to systemic changes in postgraduate education and training. Although an important topic to address for physicians of all experience levels and fields of practice, there is little research on this topic as it pertains specifically to the podiatric community. METHODS: A wellness needs assessment (WNA) was developed and distributed to podiatric residents via electronic survey. This was used to assess levels of overall wellness of residents as well as highlight several subdomains of well-being within the training programs of the podiatric profession. RESULTS: A total of 121 residents completed the wellness needs assessment. Survey respondents indicated that they suffer from high levels of professional burnout with large numbers of them experiencing depression and anxiety. When analyzing the different subdomains of wellness, intellectual and environmental wellness was high, while financial and physical wellness were reported as low. Additionally, free response answers were recorded within the survey regarding well-being initiatives that have been implemented within residency programs, and in many cases no such programs are reported to exist. CONCLUSIONS:Podiatry residents experience compromised well-being similar to their MD/DO counterparts. These exploratory survey group results are concerning and warrant further investigation as well as organizational introspection. Analysis of well-being and implementing changes that can support podiatric physicians at all levels of training could decrease the deleterious effects of burnout in all its forms.
Background: Article citations are a well-accepted method of evaluating the influence or impact of a particular article. Other medical specialties have published the top cited articles in their specialty. To date, an analysis of the foot and ankle podiatric medicine–related article citation method has not been published.
Methods: Three citation indices were used on October 10, 2014, February 20, 2015, and May 1, 2015, to determine the top 100 cited foot and ankle–related articles.
Results: Most of the top 100 cited foot and ankle podiatric medicine–related articles were published in The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery by medical doctors in the United States in the past two decades, with most of the article topics being the diabetic foot or trauma. The predominant level of evidence for the articles is evenly distributed among levels III, IV, and V.
Conclusions: Podiatric medical research and publication has made great strides during the past two decades, particularly in the diabetic foot, but continued research and peer-reviewed journal publication in additional areas regarding the foot and ankle must become a priority in the podiatric medical community.
Morton's neuromas are abnormalities of the common digital nerve branch located between the lesser metatarsal heads. Historically, interdigital (Morton's) neuromas have been characterized as being most common in the third interspace and in females. The principal investigator observed Morton's neuromas commonly in the second and third interspaces in both sexes. To our knowledge, no literature exists to evaluate Morton's neuroma location with a focus on each sex independently. The present study evaluates Morton's neuroma interspace location and whether there is a variation by sex.
In this retrospective study, 582 deidentified magnetic resonance imaging reports with a diagnosis code for Morton's neuroma were evaluated for patients scanned from January 2, 2015, through April 19, 2016. Incomplete records and those with radiologist findings inconsistent with Morton's neuroma were eliminated. For the remaining 379 patients, data were collected on sex, laterality, history of trauma, plantar plate tear, age, and interspace location. Special focus was given to second and third interspace Morton's neuromas. Data were evaluated using the Pearson χ2 and independent-samples Mann-Whitney U tests, with P < .05 indicating statistical significance.
No statistically significant distribution between sex and second and third interspace Morton's neuromas was noted. Right vs left foot, age, and history of trauma did not vary statistically significantly between sexes. There was a statistically significant difference between the presence of plantar plate tears between sexes. Male patients with Morton's neuromas were found to have a higher rate of plantar plate tears (P = .01).
This study found that there were no statistically significant differences between sexes and Morton's neuromas location, laterality, or age.
BACKGROUND: Morton's neuromas are abnormalities of the common digital nerve branch located between the lesser metatarsal heads. Historically, interdigital (Morton's) neuromas have been characterized as being most common in the third interspace and predominantly identified in females. The principal investigator observed Morton's neuromas commonly in both the 2nd and 3rd interspaces in both genders. To the best of our knowledge, no literature exists to evaluate Morton's neuroma location with a focus on each gender independently. The present study evaluates Morton's neuroma interspace location and if there is a variation between males and females.METHODS: In this retrospective study, 582 de-identified ProScan magnetic resonance imaging reports, with a diagnosis code for Morton's neuroma (ICD Code 355.6), were obtained from their centralized database. These reports were evaluated for patients scanned from January 2015-April 2016. Incomplete records and those where the radiologist findings were not consistent with Morton's neuroma were eliminated. For the remaining 379 patients, data was collected on several factors such as gender, laterality, history of trauma, plantar plate tear, age and interspace location. Special focus was given to second and third interspace Morton's neuromas. Data was then evaluated statistically utilizing the Pearson Chi-Square and Independent Samples Mann-Whitney U Test with statistical significance deemed p<0.05. RESULTS: No statistically significant distribution between gender and second and third interspace Morton's neuromas were noted. Additionally, right vs left foot, age and history of trauma did not vary between genders in a significant way. Lastly, there was a statistically significant difference between the presence of plantar plate tears between genders. Male patients with Morton's neuromas were found to have a higher rate of plantar plate tears (34/92, p=0.01).CONCLUSION: Our study found that there was not a statistically significant difference between female and male and Morton's neuromas location, laterality or age.