The literature reports that 70% of the cases of sinus tarsi syndrome are post-traumatic, following an inversion sprain, and that 30% result from inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and gouty arthritis. However, in the case presented, talipes equinovarus deformity and sinus tarsi syndrome coexisted. One of the corrective goals in the management of the talipes equinovarus deformity is the realignment of the articulation between the medial plantarly deviated talar head and the anteromedial segment of the calcaneus. The calcaneus must be rotated from a plantarflexed position into a dorsiflexed position. The posterior tubercle will be moved down and in, with the anterior process moved up and out away from the talar head. By correcting the plantarflexed varus attitude of the calcaneus, it is put in a valgus position that often closes down the sinus tarsi upon weightbearing. This compression may result in pain over the lateral aspect of the midfoot with hindfoot instability, as seen in the case presented. As a result of the abnormal anatomical relationship of the talus and calcaneus, the patient developed severe pain in the sinus tarsi. Based on the medical history and present postoperative results, the authors find a long-term sequela of talipes equinovarus deformity to be sinus tarsi syndrome.
Neuromuscular disease commonly affects the rearfoot as equinus, equinovarus, and equinovalgus deformity. Spastic hemiplegia caused by stroke, head injury, and cerebral palsy results in equinovarus deformity of the rearfoot. Spastic diplegia, most frequently caused by cerebral palsy, results in equinovalgus rearfoot deformity. Problems in ambulation, footwear, and bracing, as well as their orthopedic management, in patients with neuromuscular disease are discussed in a case-report format.
A comparative retrospective study of 48 open heel spur surgeries and 20 endoscopic plantar fasciotomies was conducted involving 59 patients over a 10-year period. There was a significant reduction in heel pain at the time of follow-up (average, 3 years) for both groups. Overall, 85% of procedures were associated with patient satisfaction with the results, and patients said that they would recommend heel spur surgery for relief of severe heel pain in 94% of cases. Factors influencing the postoperative outcome, such as duration of preoperative symptoms, extent of conservative care, and obesity, are discussed.