There is a lack of data that could address the effects of off-the-shelf insoles on gait variables in healthy people.
Thirty-three healthy volunteers ranging in age from 18 to 35 years were included to this study. Kinematic and kinetic data were obtained in barefoot, shoe-only, steel insole, silicone insole, and polyurethane insole conditions using an optoelectronic three-dimensional motion analysis system. A repeated measures analysis of variance test was used to identify statistically significant differences between insole conditions. The alpha level was set at P < .05
Maximum knee flexion was higher in the steel insole condition (P < .0001) compared with the silicone insole (P = .001) and shoe-only conditions (P = .032). Reduced maximum knee flexion was recorded in the polyurethane insole condition compared with the shoe-only condition (P = .031). Maximum knee flexion measured in the steel insole condition was higher compared to the barefoot condition (P = .020). Higher maximum ankle dorsiflexion was observed in the barefoot condition, and there were significant differences between the polyurethane insole (P < .0001), silicone insole (P = .001), steel insole (P = .002), and shoe conditions (P = .004). Least and highest maximum ankle plantarflexion were detected in the steel insole and silicone insole conditions, respectively. Maximum ankle plantarflexion in the barefoot and steel insole conditions (P = .014) and the barefoot and polyurethane insole conditions (P = .035) were significant. There was no significant difference between conditions for ground reaction force or joint moments.
Insoles made by different materials affect maximum knee flexion, maximum ankle dorsiflexion, and maximum ankle plantarflexion. This may be helpful during the decision-making process when selecting the insole material for any pathological conditions that require insole prescription.
Enchondroma is the most common benign cartilage bone tumor of the toes. In contrast, the foot is a rare region for chondrosarcoma, and the involvement of phalanges is extremely rare. In this article, we report an unusual case of intermediate chondrosarcoma involving the proximal phalanx of the great toe of a 52-year-old woman who was previously treated with curettage and bone grafting because of misinterpretation of enchondroma at a local hospital. She presented complaining of pain and swelling that she had experienced for a period of 1 year after the first operation. Radiography revealed a lytic lesion with a subtle punctuate calcification and endosteal scalloping in the proximal phalanx of the great toe. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed soft-tissue involvement and cortical destruction. Staging evaluation with computed tomographic scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis was performed to ensure that there was no metastatic disease. Subsequently, a bone biopsy was performed, and the diagnosis was grade 2 chondrosarcoma. The patient was informed about the recurrence of the lesion and the clinical context on the basis of tumor biology of chondrosarcoma and was offered the option of either amputation or wide resection. She preferred the latter. The patient was treated with wide resection and underwent reconstruction with cement and Kirschner wire. She remains free of disease after 1 year of follow-up.
Background: This study aims to evaluate and compare stiffness and the load to failure values of our novel medial malleolus compression plate (MP) and 3,5mm 1/3 tubular plate (TP) in the treatment of vertical shear fractures of medial malleolar fractures.
Methods: Fourteen identical synthetic third generation composite polyurethane bone models of right distal tibia were randomly separated into two groups. Fracture models were created with a custom-made osteotomy guide to provide the same fracture characteristics in every sample (AO OTA type 44A2). Fractures were reduced and novel medial malleolus compression plate was applied to bone models in MP group and tubular plate was applied to TP group. All samples were evaluated biomechanically, force/displacement and the load to failure values were recorded.
Results: The force required to create displacement in MP group was twice of that of the TP group. There was a significant difference between two groups in all amounts of displacement (p = .006, p = .005, p = .007 and .015 for 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mm, respectively).
Conclusions: In the treatment of vertical shear fractures of the medial malleolus, the strength of fixation with the novel medial malleolar compression plate is biomechanically higher than the one-third semi-tubular plate.