Onychocryptosis is a pathologic condition of the nail apparatus in which the toenail damages the nail fold. It is a common condition provoking pain, inflammation, and functional limitation. It principally occurs in the hallux. Onychocryptosis is one of the most frequent complaints regarding the foot and accounts for many clinical consultations. The disorder has been classified in terms of the stages of the pathologic condition. In our practice, we discovered a clinical entity that was not previously classified in the literature. We classify onychocryptosis into stages I, IIa, IIb, III, and the new stage IV. A treatment plan is offered for each stage of this classification, with both general and specific indications given. In onychocryptosis treatment, it is important to select the surgical technique best suited to the patient’s particular clinical situation. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(5): 389–393, 2007)
Background: We evaluated normal plantar pressures and studied the effect of weight, cadence, and age on forefoot plantar pressures in healthy subjects by using the Biofoot (Instituto de Biomecánica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain) in-shoe measurement system.
Methods: The feet of 45 healthy subjects with no evident foot or lower-limb diseases were measured with the Biofoot in-shoe system. The forefoot was divided into seven areas: the first through fifth metatarsal heads, the hallux, and the second through fifth lesser toes. Three trials of 8 sec each were recorded twice in each subject, and the mean was used to analyze peak and mean plantar pressures. A multiple regression model including weight, age, and cadence was run for each metatarsal head, the hallux, and the lesser toes. Intraclass correlation coefficients and coefficients of variation were also calculated to assess reliability.
Results: The second metatarsal head had the greatest peak (960 kPa) and mean (585.1 kPa) pressures, followed by the third metatarsal head. Weight and cadence combined explained 18% and 23% of peak plantar pressure at the second and third metatarsal heads, respectively (P < .001). The intraclass correlation coefficient varied from 0.76 to 0.96 for all variables. The coefficient of variation between sessions ranged from 5.8% to 9.0%.
Conclusion: The highest peak and mean plantar pressures were found at the second and third metatarsal heads in healthy subjects. Weight, cadence, and age explained a low variability of this pressure pattern. The Biofoot in-shoe system has good reliability to measure plantar pressures. These data will have implications for the understanding of normal foot biomechanics and its determinants. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(4): 302–310, 2008)
The Foot Posture Index (FPI) quantifies foot posture on the basis of six criteria. Although the male foot is longer and broader than the female foot, limited evidence exists about the differences in foot posture between the sexes and which are its biological and anthropometric determinants. We sought to evaluate possible sex differences in the FPI and the determinants influencing foot posture.
In 400 individuals (201 men and 199 women), the FPI was determined in the static bipedal stance and relaxed position. The FPI was obtained as the sum of the scores (−2, −1, 0, 1, or 2) given to each of six criteria. A multiple regression model was constructed of the overall FPI against age, weight, height, body mass index, and foot size.
The mean ± SD FPI was 2.0 ± 4.3 overall, 1.6 ± 4.5 for men, and 2.4 ± 4.1 for women, with the difference being nonsignificant (P = .142). The neutral posture was the most frequent (57.3%). A greater proportion of women had neutral and pronated feet, and a greater proportion of men had supinated and highly supinated feet, with the differences being nonsignificant (P = .143). Foot size, height, and body mass index together explained 10.1% of the overall FPI value (P < .001).
The most frequent posture was neutral with a certain degree of pronation, with no differences in FPI values between men and women. Participants with larger foot sizes had higher FPI values, whereas taller and heavier participants had lower FPI values. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(5): 400–404, 2013)
The foot of a newborn is a structure that is under formation and is susceptible to presenting pathologic disorders from the moment of birth. Evidence of the prevalence of clinodactyly in newborns is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine that prevalence and its interrelationship with gestational and neonatal factors.
In a sample of 305 newborns (147 boys and 158 girls), the commonest podiatric medical alterations with either a genetic or a postural component present at the moment of birth were explored physically. The prevalence found in the sample was then related to different anthropometric, gestational, and racial/ethnic parameters of the newborn.
The sex of the newborn was unrelated to any podiatric medical pathology found. Clinodactyly was present in approximately 90% of the fifth toes studied. Breech or transverse fetal presentation and the width of the forefoot affected the appearance of clinodactyly of the fourth and fifth toes. The anthropometric differences between the feet of boys and girls were verified.
The presence of clinodactyly of the fourth and fifth toes in newborns is a frequent clinical finding and should, therefore, be considered in the podopediatric examination. In the neonatal population studied, the pathologic disorders explored did not depend on sex. The prevalence of fourth and fifth toe clinodactyly was significantly influenced by breech or transverse presentation and by forefoot width, but not by the mother's race/ethnicity.
Fatigue due to running has been shown to contribute to changes in plantar pressure distribution. However, little is known about changes in foot posture after running. We sought to compare the Foot Posture Index before and after moderate exercise and to relate any changes to plantar pressure patterns.
A baropodometric evaluation was made, using the FootScan platform (RSscan International, Olen, Belgium), of 30 men who were regular runners and their foot posture was examined using the Foot Posture Index before and after a 60-min continuous run at a moderate pace (3.3 m/sec).
Foot posture showed a tendency toward pronation after the 60-min run, gaining 2 points in the Foot Posture Index. The total support and medial heel contact areas increased, as did pressures under the second metatarsal head and medial heel.
Continuous running at a moderate speed (3.3 m/sec) induced changes in heel strike related to enhanced pronation posture, indicative of greater stress on that zone after physical activity. This observation may help us understand the functioning of the foot, prevent injuries, and design effective plantar orthoses in sport. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(2): 121–125, 2013)
Background: The calcaneus is the bone of the foot that first receives the impact of running, generating vibrations that might have a positive effect in modifying the trabecular bone mass. The objective of this study was to determine the variation in calcaneal bone density in runners during a 6-month training season, comparing it with a control sample.
Methods: Bone density of the heel was measured in 33 male recreational runners by means of a contact ultrasonic bone analyzer. Measurements were made on three occasions during a training season: at the beginning, at 350 km, and at 700 km. All of the runners wore the same model of running shoes during this period. Measurements of bone density were also made in a control sample of 62 men who did not engage in physical exercise.
Results: There was a significant decrease in mean calcaneal bone density over the course of the training season (from 86.1 dB/MHz to 83.2 dB/MHz; P = .006), but no significant differences with the control sample value (from 80.7 dB/MHz to 81.1 dB/MHz; P = .314). The runners' body composition changed during the study period, with lean mass increasing and fat mass decreasing.
Conclusions: Distance running seems to have a negative effect on calcaneal bone mass density during the course of a 700-km training season.
Although the appearance of foot or lower-limb pathologies is etiologically multifactorial, foot postures in pronation or supination have been related to certain diseases such as patellofemoral syndrome and plantar fasciitis. The objective of the present study was to determine the normal values of foot posture in a healthy young adult Spanish sample, and to identify individuals at risk of developing some foot pathology.
The Foot Posture Index (FPI) was determined in a sample of 635 (304 men, 331 women) healthy young adults (ages 18–30 years). The FPI raw score was transformed into a logit score, and a new classification was obtained with the mean ± 2 SD to identify the 5% of the sample with potentially pathologic feet.
The normal range of the FPI was −1 to +6, and FPI values from +10 to +12 and −6 to −12 could be classified as indicating potentially pathologic feet. The women's logit FPI (0.50 ± 1.4, raw FPI +3) was higher than the men's (0.25 ± 1.6, raw FPI +2), with the difference being significant (P = 0.038). No statistically significant differences were found between body mass index groups (P = 0.141).
The normal FPI range goes from just one point of supination to a certain degree of pronation (+6). The identification of 35 individuals with potentially pathologic feet may help in the implementation of a preventive plan to avoid the appearance of foot disorders.