A 30-year-old man working as a waiter presented with a progressively enlarging and symptomatic soft-tissue mass on the plantar medial aspect of his left foot. The mass was painful and disrupting ambulation, despite footwear modifications. He ultimately underwent excision of what was a determined to be a fibrolipoma, returning to his regular shoes and all activities. Plantar neoplasms, even when benign, can grow to sizes that can result in significant disability. If left untreated, particularly in individuals engaged in occupations requiring frequent standing or walking, excision of the mass will often require a more aggressive operative approach.
Reported here is the case of a 55-year-old woman presenting to a podiatry clinic with a chief complaint of left heel and ankle pain, who ultimately underwent operative excision of an angioleiomyoma adjacent to the tibialis posterior artery at the level of the medial malleolus. Accompanying this case are images from three modalities through which the defining characteristics of an angioleiomyoma can be appreciated. This case advocates for the inclusion of angioleiomyoma in the preoperative differential diagnosis of a mass presenting as a pseudoaneurysm in the lower extremity, particularly among women in the fourth to sixth decades of life.
One of the most common causes of heel pain is plantar fasciitis; however, there are other pathologic disorders that can mimic the symptoms and clinical presentation of this disorder. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review the prevalence of various pathologic disorders on ultrasound in patients with proximal plantar heel pain.
The medical records and diagnostic ultrasound reports of patients presenting with plantar heel pain between March 1, 2006, and March 31, 2007, were reviewed retrospectively, and the prevalence of various etiologies was collected. The inclusion criteria were based on their clinical presentation of plantar fasciitis or previous diagnosis of plantar fasciitis from an unknown source. Ultrasound evaluation was then performed to confirm the clinical diagnosis.
We examined 175 feet of 143 patients (62 males and 81 females; age range, 16–79 years). Plantar fibromas were present in 90 feet (51%). Plantar fasciitis was diagnosed in 128 feet (73%). Coexistent plantar fibroma and plantar fascial thickening was found in 63 feet (36%). Of the 47 feet that were negative for plantar fasciitis on ultrasound, 27 (57%) revealed the presence of plantar fibroma.
Diagnostic ultrasound can effectively and safely identify the prevalence of various etiologies of heel pain. The high prevalence of plantar fibromas and plantar fascial tears cannot be determined by clinical examination alone, and, therefore, ultrasound evaluation should be performed for confirmation of diagnosis.
Clinical observations note that foot pain can be linked to contralateral pain at the knee or hip, yet we are unaware of any community-based studies that have investigated the sidedness of pain. Because clinic-based patient samples are often different from the general population, the purpose of this study was to determine whether knee or hip pain is more prevalent with contralateral foot pain than with ipsilateral foot pain in a population-based cohort.
Framingham Foot Study participants (2002–2008) with information on foot, knee, and hip pain were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Foot pain was queried as pain, aching, or stiffness on most days. Using a manikin diagram, participants indicated whether they had experienced pain, aching, or stiffness at the hip or knee and specified the side of any reported pain. Sex-specific multinomial logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for the association of foot pain with knee and hip pain, adjusting for age and body mass index.
In the 2,181 participants, the mean ± SD age was 64 ± 9 years; 56% were women, and the mean body mass index was 28.6. For men and women, bilateral foot pain was associated with increased odds of knee pain on any side (ORs = 2–3; P < .02). Men with foot pain were more likely to have ipsilateral hip pain (ORs = 2–4; P<.03), whereas women with bilateral foot pain were more likely to have hip pain on any side (OR = 2–3; P < .02).
Bilateral foot pain was associated with increased odds of knee and hip pain in men and women. For ipsilateral foot and hip pain, men had a stronger effect compared with women.
To our knowledge, hand dominance and side of foot disorders has not been described in the literature. We sought to evaluate whether hand dominance was associated with ipsilateral foot disorders in community-dwelling older men and women.
Data were from the Framingham Foot Study (N = 2,089, examined 2002–2008). Hand preference for writing was used to classify hand dominance. Foot disorders and side of disorders were based on validated foot examination findings. Generalized linear models with generalized estimating equations were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, accounting for intraperson variability.
Left-handed people were less likely to have foot pain or any foot disorders ipsilateral but were more likely to have hallux valgus ipsilateral to the left hand. Among right-handed people, the following statistically significant increased odds of having an ipsilateral versus contralateral foot disorder were seen: 30% for Morton’s neuroma, 18% for hammer toes, 21% for lesser toe deformity, and a twofold increased odds of any foot disorder; there was a 17% decreased odds for Tailor’s bunion and an 11% decreased odds for pes cavus.
For the 2,089 study participants, certain forefoot disorders were shown to be ipsilateral and others were contralateral to the dominant hand. Future studies should examine whether the same biological mechanism that explains ipsilateral hand and foot preference may explain ipsilateral hand dominance and forefoot disorders. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(1): 16–23, 2013)