Literature examining the incidence of foot diseases in rock climbing is limited to traumatic injuries. We examined a large sample of climbers, assessed the chronic diseases of the foot, and correlated them with foot morphology, shoe type, and type of climbing practiced.
Between May 1 and September 30, 2009, 144 climbers (mean age, 31.7 years) were examined to analyze the effect of rock climbing on the various foot diseases found at the time of the evaluation.
Eighty-six percent of the climbers were affected by a pathologic condition. Nail disease was found in 65.3% of patients, followed by recurrent ankle sprains (27.8%), retrocalcaneal bursitis (19.4%), Achilles tendinitis (12.5%), metatarsalgia (12.5%), and plantar fasciitis (5.6%). Male sex, the use of high-type shoes, the high degree of climbing difficulty, and the competitive level were often related to the onset of foot diseases. Climbing shoes are usually smaller than common footwear. This “shoe-size reduction” averaged 2.3 sizes, forcing the foot into a supinated and cavus posture that favors lateral instability. The posterior edge of the shoe aperture produces increased pressure on the heel, with retrocalcaneal bursitis.
Overuse foot diseases related to rock climbing are particularly frequent and debilitating. Detailed knowledge of these diseases and their predisposing factors may help us implement effective preventive or therapeutic measures, including changes in the type of climbing, correction of body weight, degree of difficulty, footwear, orthoses, and measures that maximize the support of the foot to the ground. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(2): 113–120, 2013)
Background: Radiographic assessment is still used to evaluate flexible flatfoot in children.
Methods: To find a set of radiologic parameters for assessing this disease, we studied 53 children aged 10 to 14 years. The degree of plantar collapse was measured by Viladot’s classification (grades 0–4). The degree of valgus deformity measured in the heel in a standing position, the presence of painful points, and functional limitation during daily-living activities were also reported. The children underwent standard radiography of the foot under load. On the dorsoplantar view, the talocalcaneal, hallux metatarsophalangeal, and first intermetatarsal angles were measured. On the lateral view, the talocalcaneal, Costa Bertani, talometatarsal, talonavicular, and tibiotalar angles were measured. The radiographic measurements were compared with the data reported in the literature and were correlated with the clinical parameters studied (degree of flatfoot, valgus deviation of the heel, pain, and functional limitation).
Results: The radiographic measures that resulted increased with respect to the reference values reported in the literature for the Costa Bertani (93.1% of feet), talometatarsal (93.5%), talonavicular (89.1%), and tibiotalar (69.7%) angles, all in the lateral view. Of the angles assessed in the dorsoplantar view, the hallux metatarsophalangeal (11.1%) and first intermetatarsal (24.2%) angles were increased. The degree of flatfoot was correlated with the Costa Bertani angle (P < .0005). In the group with pain, the lateral talocalcaneal (P = .016) and first intermetatarsal (P = .02) angles were increased compared within the group without pain.
Conclusions: Despite technical limitations, we still consider standard radiography of the foot, combined with clinical examination, to be a valid tool for assessing flexible flatfoot in children, especially when surgical treatment is expected and when a basic measure of the structural setup of the foot is necessary. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(6): 463–471, 2010)
Chronic Achilles tendon lesions (CATLs) ensue from a neglected acute rupture or a degenerated tendon. Surgical treatment is usually required. The current English literature (PubMed) about CATLs was revised, and particular emphasis was given to articles depicting CATL classification. The available treatment algorithms are based on defect size. We propose the inclusion of other parameters, such as tendon degeneration, etiology, and time from injury to surgery. Partial lesions affecting less than (I stage) or more than (II stage) half of the tendon should be treated conservatively for healthy tendons, within 12 weeks of injury. In II stage complex cases, an end-to-end anastomosis is required. Complete lesions inferior to 2 cm should be addressed by an end-to-end anastomosis, with a tendon transfer in the case of tendon degeneration. Lesions measuring 2 to 5 cm require a turndown flap and a V-Y tendinous flap in the case of a good-quality tendon; degenerated tendons may require a tendon transfer. Lesions larger than 5 cm should be treated using two tendon transfers and V-Y tendinous flaps. A proper algorithm should be introduced to calibrate the surgical procedures. In addition to tendon defect size, tendon degeneration, etiology of the lesion, and time from injury to surgery are crucial factors that should be considered in the surgical planning.
There is little knowledge of the functional performance of patients with talocalcaneal coalition because of the marginal quantitative information accessible using current motion-analysis and plantar pressure–measurement techniques. A novel system was developed for comprehensively measuring foot–floor interaction during the stance phase of gait that integrates instrumentation for simultaneously measuring bony segment position, ground reaction force, and plantar pressure with synchronization of spatial and temporal variables. An advanced anatomically based analysis of foot joint rotations was also applied. Tracking of numerous anatomical landmarks allowed accurate selection of three footprint subareas and reliable estimation of relevant local forces and moments. Eight patients (11 feet) with talocalcaneal coalition were analyzed. Major impairment of the rearfoot was found in nonsurgical patients, with an everted attitude, limited plantarflexion, and overloading in all three components of ground reaction force. Surgical patients showed more normal loading patterns in each footprint subarea. This measuring system allowed for accurate inspection of the effects of surgical treatment in the entire foot and at several footprint subareas. Surgical treatment of talocalcaneal coalition seems to be effective in restoring more physiologic subtalar and forefoot motion and loading patterns. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(2): 107–115, 2006)
Background: Most clinical studies on total ankle replacement (TAR) report assessments based on traditional clinical scores or radiographic analysis. Only a few studies have used modern instrumentation for quantitative functional analysis during the execution of activities of daily living. The aim of this study was to use gait analysis to compare the functional performance of patients who underwent TAR versus a control population.
Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of ten consecutive patients who had undergone meniscal-bearing TAR. Clinical and functional assessments were performed at a mean follow-up of 34 months with a modified Mazur scoring system and state-of-the-art gait analysis.
Results: Gait analysis assessment of TAR at medium-term follow-up showed satisfactory results for all patients, with adequate recovery of range of motion. Because the literature reports unsatisfying long-term results, it is important to evaluate these patients over a longer follow-up period.
Conclusions: This study showed that TAR yields satisfactory, but not outstanding, general functional results at nearly 3 years’ follow-up. These gait analysis results highlight the importance of integrating in vivo measurements with the standard clinical assessments of patients who underwent TAR while they perform activities of daily living. These results also emphasize the importance of evaluating the functional outcome of TAR over time. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(1): 19–26, 2008)