The definition of equinus varies from less than 0° to less than 25° of dorsiflexion with the foot at 90° to the leg. Despite its pervasive nature and broad association with many lower-extremity conditions, the prevalence of ankle equinus is unclear. Furthermore, there are few data to suggest whether equinus is predominantly a bilateral finding or isolated to the affected limb only.
We conducted a prospective cohort study examining consecutive patients attending a single foot and ankle specialty practice. Participation involved an assessment of ankle joint range of motion by a single rater with more than 25 years of clinical experience. We defined ankle equinus as ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion less than or equal to 0° and severe equinus as less than or equal to –5°. Patients who had previously experienced an Achilles tendon rupture, undergone posterior group lengthening (ie, Achilles tendon or gastrocnemius muscle lengthening), or had conservative or surgical treatment of equinus previously were excluded.
Of 249 included patients, 61% were female and 79% nondiabetic. The prevalence of ankle equinus was 73% [183 of 249], and nearly all of these patients had bilateral restriction of ankle joint range of motion (prevalence of bilateral ankle equinus was 98.4% [180 of 183] among those with equinus). We also found that ankle equinus was more common in patients with diabetes, higher body mass indexes (BMIs), or overuse symptoms.
The prevalence of ankle equinus in this sample was higher than previously reported, and nearly all of these patients had bilateral involvement. These data suggest that many people attending foot/ankle specialty clinics will have ankle equinus, and select groups (diabetes, increased BMI, overuse symptoms) are increasingly likely.
Mycetoma cases are predominantly found in tropical regions and are a rare finding in the United States. These masses that are fungal or bacterial in origin can result in significant destruction of soft tissue and bone. We present a case of a patient who emigrated from Mexico to Indianapolis. He presented with a soft-tissue mass that was excised and ultimately found to be a eumycetoma of the hallux of his left foot. Successful treatment included surgical resection in combination with postoperative terbinafine, which was pulse dosed to decrease its impact on hepatic function.
The Evans osteotomy is a widely used procedure for the correction of adult and pediatric flexible flatfoot deformity. Locking plates are commonly used to stabilize the osteotomy and the allograft. However, there have been incidences of soft-tissue irritation caused by the hardware, requiring subsequent hardware removal. Therefore, we sought to review whether age, sex, or laterality of the procedure had any correlation with the rate of hardware removal.
A retrospective review was performed of 47 consecutive patients who underwent an Evans calcaneal osteotomy between October 1, 2013, and October 1, 2016. Data were collected and analyzed based on age, sex, laterality, and the need for hardware removal.
All of the 47 patients met the inclusion criteria. Seventy procedures were performed, and hardware removal was required in 16 patients and 21 feet (30%). The only statistically significant finding was that 11 females and only five males required either unilateral or bilateral hardware removal (P = .039). All 16 patients reported complete pain relief after hardware removal.
Females are twice as likely as males to develop symptoms after locking plate application over an Evans osteotomy and may require hardware removal. Despite the low-profile nature of the locking plate to fixate the Evans osteotomy, the hardware can be a source of significant pain. Patients, especially females, should be cautioned about potential hardware-related pain and a possible follow-up procedure to remove the hardware.
Morton's neuromas are abnormalities of the common digital nerve branch located between the lesser metatarsal heads. Historically, interdigital (Morton's) neuromas have been characterized as being most common in the third interspace and in females. The principal investigator observed Morton's neuromas commonly in the second and third interspaces in both sexes. To our knowledge, no literature exists to evaluate Morton's neuroma location with a focus on each sex independently. The present study evaluates Morton's neuroma interspace location and whether there is a variation by sex.
In this retrospective study, 582 deidentified magnetic resonance imaging reports with a diagnosis code for Morton's neuroma were evaluated for patients scanned from January 2, 2015, through April 19, 2016. Incomplete records and those with radiologist findings inconsistent with Morton's neuroma were eliminated. For the remaining 379 patients, data were collected on sex, laterality, history of trauma, plantar plate tear, age, and interspace location. Special focus was given to second and third interspace Morton's neuromas. Data were evaluated using the Pearson χ2 and independent-samples Mann-Whitney U tests, with P < .05 indicating statistical significance.
No statistically significant distribution between sex and second and third interspace Morton's neuromas was noted. Right vs left foot, age, and history of trauma did not vary statistically significantly between sexes. There was a statistically significant difference between the presence of plantar plate tears between sexes. Male patients with Morton's neuromas were found to have a higher rate of plantar plate tears (P = .01).
This study found that there were no statistically significant differences between sexes and Morton's neuromas location, laterality, or age.
BACKGROUND: Morton's neuromas are abnormalities of the common digital nerve branch located between the lesser metatarsal heads. Historically, interdigital (Morton's) neuromas have been characterized as being most common in the third interspace and predominantly identified in females. The principal investigator observed Morton's neuromas commonly in both the 2nd and 3rd interspaces in both genders. To the best of our knowledge, no literature exists to evaluate Morton's neuroma location with a focus on each gender independently. The present study evaluates Morton's neuroma interspace location and if there is a variation between males and females.METHODS: In this retrospective study, 582 de-identified ProScan magnetic resonance imaging reports, with a diagnosis code for Morton's neuroma (ICD Code 355.6), were obtained from their centralized database. These reports were evaluated for patients scanned from January 2015-April 2016. Incomplete records and those where the radiologist findings were not consistent with Morton's neuroma were eliminated. For the remaining 379 patients, data was collected on several factors such as gender, laterality, history of trauma, plantar plate tear, age and interspace location. Special focus was given to second and third interspace Morton's neuromas. Data was then evaluated statistically utilizing the Pearson Chi-Square and Independent Samples Mann-Whitney U Test with statistical significance deemed p<0.05. RESULTS: No statistically significant distribution between gender and second and third interspace Morton's neuromas were noted. Additionally, right vs left foot, age and history of trauma did not vary between genders in a significant way. Lastly, there was a statistically significant difference between the presence of plantar plate tears between genders. Male patients with Morton's neuromas were found to have a higher rate of plantar plate tears (34/92, p=0.01).CONCLUSION: Our study found that there was not a statistically significant difference between female and male and Morton's neuromas location, laterality or age.