Background: The COVID-19 pandemic impacted all facets of health care in the United States, including the disruption of professional training for podiatry residents and students. In March 2020, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) recommended pausing then modifying all clinical rotations. The podiatric community followed suit. In-person restrictions, cancellations of clerkships, limited clinical experiences, virtual didactic programs and reduced surgical cases for students and residency programs occurred for many months during the ongoing pandemic. These adaptations impacted the ability of podiatric students to complete clinical rotations and clerkships, which are pivotal to their academic curriculum and residency program application and selection.
Methods: A survey was conducted by the Council of Teaching Hospitals (COTH) and sent out by the American Association of Colleges of Podiatric Medicine (AACPM). The 2021 post-interview surveys were sent out to all participants in the 2021 CASPR application and match cycle, both programs and candidates.
Results: The COTH presents results and comments from the 2021 virtual interview experience and residency match. Data and anecdotal comments from the 2021 post-interview survey conducted by COTH, sent out by AACPM, are presented here.
Conclusions: Results from the surveys of program directors and candidates show a preference by both groups for in-person interviews despite the personal time demands and increased costs associated with travel.
In many medical schools, microscopes are being replaced as teaching tools by computers with software that emulates the use of a light microscope. This article chronicles the adoption of “virtual microscopes” by a podiatric medical school and presents the results of educational research on the effectiveness of this adoption in a histology course. If the trend toward virtual microscopy in education continues, many 21st-century physicians will not be trained to operate a light microscope. The replacement of old technologies by new is discussed. The fundamental question is whether all podiatric physicians should be trained in the use of a particular tool or only those who are likely to use it in their own practice. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(6): 518–524, 2006)
Promoting the Role of Virtual Reality in Patients with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy frequently experience concomitant impaired proprioception and postural instability. Conventional exercise training has been demonstrated to be effective in improving balance but does not incorporate visual feedback targeting joint perception, which is an integral mechanism that helps compensate for impaired proprioception in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.
This prospective cohort study recruited 29 participants (mean ± SD: age, 57 ± 10 years; body mass index [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared], 26.9 ± 3.1). Participants satisfying the inclusion criteria performed predefined ankle exercises through reaching tasks, with visual feedback from the ankle joint projected on a screen. Ankle motion in the mediolateral and anteroposterior directions was captured using wearable sensors attached to the participant’s shank. Improvements in postural stability were quantified by measuring center of mass sway area and the reciprocal compensatory index before and after training using validated body-worn sensor technology.
Findings revealed a significant reduction in center of mass sway after training (mean, 22%; P = .02). A higher postural stability deficit (high body sway) at baseline was associated with higher training gains in postural balance (reduction in center of mass sway) (r = −0.52, P < .05). In addition, significant improvement was observed in postural coordination between the ankle and hip joints (mean, 10.4%; P = .04).
The present research implemented a novel balance rehabilitation strategy based on virtual reality technology. The method included wearable sensors and an interactive user interface for real-time visual feedback based on ankle joint motion, similar to a video gaming environment, for compensating impaired joint proprioception. These findings support that visual feedback generated from the ankle joint coupled with motor learning may be effective in improving postural stability in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(6): 498–507, 2013)
Toenail onychomycosis is a common condition that is equally challenging for podiatrists and patients. This case study documents a 26-year-old woman with bilateral total dystrophic onychomycosis of at least 5 years’ duration. She had previously failed to respond to treatment with ciclopirox nail lacquer 8% and, despite hiding her condition with nail polish, was suffering from embarrassment, distress, and low self-esteem. At initial consultation, 100% of both great toenails was affected. After discussion of all treatment options, the patient opted for topical efinaconazole 10% solution, once daily for 48 weeks. Significant improvement was noted at the first (4-week) assessment period. This improvement was maintained through each subsequent virtual consultation, and complete cure was seen at a 30-week follow-up visit. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first published report on the use of efinaconazole in total dystrophic onychomycosis. It suggests that the product may be effective in patients with even the most severe and treatment-recalcitrant disease, who are unwilling or unable to tolerate systemic antifungal therapy.
First metatarsal protrusion distance (MPD) has been commonly studied as a characteristic of hallux valgus deformity. To date, the majority of investigations have used radiographic methods, with most reporting first metatarsal (ray) protrusion to be associated with deformity. As an alternative, this study used a three-dimensional (3-D) image acquisition and data analysis method to quantify MPD.
Magnetic resonance images were acquired in weightbearing on 29 women (19 with hallux valgus; 10 controls). After the 3-D images were reconstructed into virtual bone models, two examiners measured MPD in relation to the navicular. In addition to a reliability analysis, a t test assessed for group differences in demographics, foot posture (hallux valgus, intermetatarsal angles), and MPD.
Group demographics were not different, while measures of hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angles were different (P < 0.01) between groups. The measurement of MPD was highly reliable (ICC
The reconstructed image datasets captured the 3-D spatial relationship of the anatomy. Measurements of MPD were reliable. The first ray measured 2 mm shorter than the second ray in both the hallux valgus and control groups. Though unexpected, this result may prompt future study of the pathokinematics associated with hallux valgus that include the quantification of metatarsal protrusion with 3-D methods, instead of relying solely on single-plane radiograph reports.
We used finite element analysis to study the mechanical displacements at three planes of the second through fourth hammertoes during the push-off phase of gait using a new neutral or 10° angled memory alloy intramedullary implant (FDA K070598) used for proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis.
After geometric reconstruction of the foot skeleton from computed tomographic images of a 36-year-old man, an intramedullary implant was positioned in the virtual model at the neutral and 10° angled positions at the proximal interphalangeal joints of the second through fourth hammertoes during the push-off phase of gait. The obtained displacement results in three planes were compared with those derived from the nonsurgical foot model using finite element analysis.
These results support the successful use of either a neutral or angled implant for proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis, with the neutral implant yielding slightly better results.
The neutral implant reduced vertical displacement to a greater extent than did the angled implant. We also highlight the potential risk of iatrogenic curly toe when performing a proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis using an angled implant specifically at the fourth toe.
Toenail onychomycosis is a common condition that is equally challenging for podiatrists and patients. This case study documents a 26-year-old woman with bilateral total dystrophic onychomycosis of at least 5 years' duration. She had previously failed to respond to treatment with ciclopirox nail lacquer 8% and despite hiding her condition with nail polish, was suffering from embarrassment, distress and low self-esteem. At initial consult, one hundred percent of both great toenails were affected. After discussion of all treatment options, the patient opted for topical efinaconazole 10% solution, once daily for 48 weeks. Significant improvement was noted at the first (4 week) assessment period. This improvement was maintained through each subsequent virtual consult and complete cure was seen at a 30-week follow-up visit. To the author's knowledge this is the first published report on the use of efinaconazole in total dystrophic onychomycosis. It suggests that the product may be effective in patients with even the most severe and treatment recalcitrant disease, who are unwilling or unable to tolerate systemic antifungal therapy.
Many regard empathy as a critical component of comprehensive health care. Much interest has been generated in the field of medical empathy, in particular as it relates to education. Many desirable outcomes correlate with perceived empathy during the patient encounter, but paradoxically, empathy levels have been reported to decline during the years of medical education. Several new approaches have been described in the literature that intend to teach or develop empathy skills in health-care students.
PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar databases were searched for the terms empathy education, medical education, medical student, podiatric medical education, medical empathy, compassion, emotional intelligence, biopsychosocial model, and bedside manner. After implementing inclusion and exclusion criteria, articles were selected for preparation of a literature review. Analysis of the podiatric medical education on empathy was conducted by reviewing descriptions of all courses listed on each of the nine US podiatric medical schools' Web sites. The 2018 Curricular Guide for Podiatric Medical Education was analyzed.
In this review, we examine the current state of empathy from a context of medical education in general, followed by a specific analysis in podiatric medicine. We define key terms, describe the measuring of empathy in medicine, explore outcomes of empathy in the health-care setting, review the reports of a decline in medical education, and highlight some of the current efforts to develop the skill in education. An overview of empathy in the podiatric medical curriculum is presented.
To improve the quality of care that physicians provide, a transformation in podiatric medical education is necessary. A variety of tools are available for education reform with the target of developing empathy skills in podiatric medical students.
This paper presents a selection of Internet resources covering most of the subject areas found in standard medical education curricula. Basic sciences sites are emphasized, but clinical resources are also included. Reported sites were judged based on their potential to enhance the learning process, provide practice questions or study guides for examinations, or aid in the preparation of papers. In addition to podiatric medical students, residents and practitioners who require a quick reference source to either the basic science foundations of podiatric medicine or the clinical side of podiatric practice may find this paper useful. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 91(6): 316-323, 2001)
The considerable variation in subtalar joint structure and function shown by studies indicates the importance of developing a noninvasive in vivo technique for assessing subtalar joint movement. This article reports the in vitro testing of the CODA MPX30, an active infrared marker motion analysis system. This work represents the first stage in the development of a noninvasive in vivo method for measuring subtalar joint motion during walking.
The in vitro repeatability of the CODA MPX30 system’s measurements of marker position, simple and intermarker set angles, was tested. Angular orientations of markers representing the position of the talus and the calcaneus were measured using a purpose-designed marker placement model.
Marker location measurements were shown to vary by less than 1.0 mm in all of the planes. The measurement of a 90° angle was also found to be repeatable in all of the planes, although measurements made in the yz plane were shown to be consistently inaccurate (mean, 92.47°). Estimation of segmental orientation was found to be repeatable. Estimations of marker set orientations were shown to increase in variability after a coordinate transform was performed (maximum SD, 1.14°).
The CODA MPX30 was shown to produce repeatable estimations of marker position. Levels of variation in segmental orientation estimates were shown to increase subsequent to coordinate transforms. The combination of the CODA MPX30 and an appropriate marker placement model offers the basis of an in vivo measurement strategy of subtalar joint movement, an important development in the understanding of the function of the joint during gait. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(5): 400–406, 2011)