True Pathologic Abnormality versus Artifact
Foot Position and Magic Angle Artifact in the Peroneal Tendons with 3T Imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging is a commonly ordered examination by many foot and ankle surgeons for ankle pain and suspected peroneal tendon pathologic abnormalities. Magic angle artifact is one of the complexities associated with this imaging modality. Magic angle refers to the increased signal on magnetic resonance images associated with the highly organized collagen fibers in tendons and ligaments when they are orientated at a 55° angle to the main magnetic field. We present several examples from a clinical practice setting using 3T imaging illustrating a substantial reduction in magic angle artifact of the peroneal tendon in the prone plantarflexed position compared with the standard neutral (right angle) position.
The objective of this study was to determine whether a correlation exists between abnormal pronation and functional leg-length discrepancies. Visual assessment and a pelvic thrust maneuver were used to identify the functionally short leg in 56 indigenous Mexicans (20 males and 36 females; mean age, 33 years; mean weight, 59 kg; and mean height, 1.60 m). The Foot Posture Index was used with a modified stance position to identify the more pronated foot. The posterosuperior iliac spines were used to identify the “relative” position of the innominate bones. The raw data obtained from this study were evaluated using the McNemar test for paired proportions. A significant positive correlation was found between abnormal pronation and hip position and between hip position and functional leg-length discrepancy. These results are consistent with a theoretical ascending dysfunctional pelvic model: Abnormal pronation pulls the innominate bones anteriorly (forward); anterior rotation of the innominate bones shifts the acetabula posteriorly and cephalad (backward and upward); and this shift in the acetabula hyperextends the knees and shortens the legs, with the shortest leg corresponding to the most pronated foot. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(6): 499-507, 2006)
Background: Twenty-two children from Jiutepec, Mexico, were studied to determine whether a correlation exists among foot motion, the position of the innominates, and vertical facial dimensions (ie, the distances between the outer corners of the eyes [the exocanthions] and the ipsilateral outer margins of the lips).
Methods: Three null hypotheses were constructed and tested using the one-sample t test. Hypothesis A: there is no relationship between abnormal foot pronation and hip position; Hypothesis B: there is no relationship between hip position and vertical facial dimensions; and Hypothesis C: there is no relationship between abnormal foot pronation and vertical facial dimensions.
Results: The three null hypotheses were rejected.
Conclusions: An ascending foot cranial model was theorized to explain the findings generated from this study: 1) due to the action of gravity on the body, abnormal foot pronation (inward, forward, and downward rotation) displaces the innominates anteriorly (forward) and downward, with the more anteriorly rotated innominate corresponding to the more pronated foot; 2) anterior rotation of the innominates draws the temporal bones into anterior (internal) rotation, with the more anteriorly rotated temporal bone being ipsilateral to the more anteriorly rotated innominate bone; 3) the more anteriorly rotated temporal bone is linked to an ipsilateral inferior cant of the sphenoid and superior cant of the maxilla, resulting in a relative loss of vertical facial dimensions; and 4) the relative loss of vertical facial dimensions is on the same side as the more pronated foot. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(3): 189–196, 2008)
The authors reviewed data from 40 peroneal tendon surgeries performed on 39 patients (25 males and 14 females) between 1991 and 1999. Patients underwent tendon repair, subluxation repair, and/or accessory ossicle and muscle excisions. Some patients underwent more than one procedure, including eight undergoing ankle stabilizations. Preoperatively and postoperatively, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle–hindfoot score was assessed. Average preoperative and postoperative ankle–hindfoot scores were 61.6 (range, 19 to 72) and 91.4 (range, 63 to 100), respectively. Mean group return-to-activity time, defined as initiation of regular activity, including sports, was 3.2 months (range, 1 to 6 months). There were 17 athletes and 22 active patients; no patients were sedentary. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate peroneal tendon pathology in 29 patients. Sensitivity was 82.7%; specificity, 50%; and positive predictive value, 100%. Overall results were excellent in 25 cases, good in 12, fair in 1, and poor in 2. A paired t-test showed that patients with previous steroid injections had statistically poorer results. Patients with symptoms for more than 12 months also had poorer outcomes. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(4): 272-282, 2003)
Podiatric medical abnormalities are highly prevalent, yet few random population studies exist that determine the presence of pathologic abnormalities in the feet, despite their importance. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of podiatric medical abnormalities in a random sample population 40 years or older.
An observational study was conducted of a random sample population (n = 1,002) located in A Coruña, Spain. Anthropometric variables, comorbidity (Charlson score), quality of life (36-item Short-Form Health Survey), and podiatric medical examination findings were studied. A descriptive analysis and multivariate logistic regression were performed.
The most common diseases were claw toes (69.7%), hallux valgus (38%), and hallux extensus (15.8%), which increased with age and female sex. The most frequent metatarsal formula was index minus (40.9%), followed by index plus minus (35.0%). The most frequent digital formula was Egyptian foot (57.1%), followed by Greek foot (31.4%). In this study, although the presence of podiatric medical abnormalities reduced the probability of enjoying a better quality of life, it did not do so significantly. After taking into account age, sex, comorbidity, body mass index (BMI), and the presence of podiatric medical abnormalities, the variables with an independent effect that modified the physical component of quality of life were sex (female), comorbidity, and BMI.
There was a high prevalence of podiatric medical abnormalities, which increased with age and female sex. Comorbidity, BMI, and sex modified quality of life independently of podiatric medical abnormalities.
Background: An abnormal hallux interphalangeal angle may be an important risk factor for the recurrence of ingrown toenails.
Methods: In this study, sixty pediatric patients who underwent surgery for an ingrown toenail were evaluated retrospectively in terms of recurrence. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included 30 patients (22 male, 8 female) with hallux valgus interphalangeal deformity. Group 2 included 30 patients (20 male, 10 female) without toe deformity.
Results: The mean age was 12.8±1.42 years and 12.5±1.45 years for patients in Group 1 and in Group 2 respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the patient and control group in terms of age and gender (p>0.05). The mean follow-up time was 40 months. We observed recurrence in six patients (20%) in Group 1 and in 2 patients (6.6%) in Group 2.
Conclusion: We concluded that the recurrence of an ingrown toenail may be associated with increased hallux interphalangeal angle in pediatric patients. Factors related to the hallux interphalangeal angle abnormality, which increases the risk of ingrown toenails, also increase the recurrence rate in these patients. Therefore, it is surmised that hallux valgus interphalangeal deformity should be evaluated before surgery, and patients and their families should be informed about the risk of increased recurrence.
The aim of this study was to determine whether the treatment of abnormal subtalar pronation restores functional (as opposed to structural) limited dorsiflexion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (functional hallux limitus). We studied 16 feet of eight individuals with abnormal subtalar pronation. Orthoses were made for all of the feet, and hallux dorsiflexion was measured during weightbearing. Each patient was unshod without the orthosis, unshod with the orthosis fitted on the same day, and unshod with the orthosis fitted approximately 5 months later. The results suggest that in functional hallux limitus caused by abnormal subtalar pronation, hallux dorsiflexion will gradually be restored by the use of foot orthoses to control the abnormal subtalar pronation. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(4): 283–289, 2006)
Although cerebral palsy is primarily a central nervous system disorder, its major manifestations are musculoskeletal. The authors focus on normal tonic reflexes of the foot and the developmental consequences of failure to inhibit these reflexes. Various gait abnormalities seen in cerebral palsy are reviewed. Finally, the use of inhibitive casts as a conservative modality for treating hyperactive reflexes in the spastic cerebral palsy child is discussed. The reduction of abnormal tone facilitates the development of a normal gait pattern in these children.