Morton's neuroma is a common condition that routinely presents in podiatric practice. The aim of this study was to systematically synthesize the evidence relating to the effectiveness of a corticosteroid injection for Morton's neuroma.
Studies with a publication date of 1960 or later were eligible, and searches were performed within the Turning Research Into Practice database; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register; MEDLINE (Ovid); PubMed; Embase; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; and the gray literature. Study selection criteria included randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials where a single corticosteroid injection for Morton's neuroma pain was investigated. The primary outcome was Morton's neuroma pain as measured by any standard validated pain scale.
Ten studies involving 695 participants were included. The quality of the studies was considered low and subject to bias. Of the included studies, five compared corticosteroid injection to usual care, one compared corticosteroid injection to local anesthetic alone, one compared ultrasound-guided to non–ultrasound-guided injections, three compared corticosteroid injections to surgery, one compared small to large neuromas, six assessed patient satisfaction, four measured adverse events, one studied return to work, and one examined failure of the corticosteroid injection to improve pain. Overall, these studies identified a moderate short- to medium-term benefit of corticosteroid injections on the primary outcome of pain and a low adverse event rate.
A single corticosteroid injection appears to have a beneficial short- to medium-term effect on Morton's neuroma pain. It appears superior to usual care, but its superiority to local anaesthetic alone is questionable, and it is inferior to surgical excision. A very low adverse event rate was noted throughout the studies, indicating the intervention is safe when used for Morton's neuroma. However, the quality of the evidence is low, and these findings may change with further research.
Background: Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain. Conservative treatment is often effective, but in many cases, invasive procedures may be required. Local corticosteroid injection is the most frequently used invasive technique and can be given under ultrasound (USG) or palpation guidance. We sought to compare the outcome of local corticosteroid injection by USG and palpation guidance in plantar fasciitis.
Methods: This was a prospective randomized study of patients who presented with heel pain between July 2015 and November 2016 and were screened for plantar fasciitis by USG. Patients with confirmed plantar fasciitis were managed conservatively for 4 weeks. The 60 consecutive patients not responding to the conservative treatment were randomized into two groups. Group A (n = 30) received a corticosteroid injection under USG guidance. Group B (n = 30) received a corticosteroid injection under palpation guidance. Patients were followed up at 3 and 6 weeks. We compared the visual analog scale score, plantar fascia thickness, and heel pad thickness in both groups.
Results: There was significant pain relief in both groups after 3 and 6 weeks of local corticosteroid injection, with greater relief noted in the USG-guided group. There was a significant decrement in plantar fascia thickness in both groups after 3 and 6 weeks; however, a greater decrement was observed in the USG-guided group. Neither group showed a significant difference in heel pad thickness after 3 and 6 weeks.
Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided injection provided better pain relief and a greater reduction in plantar fascia thickness than palpation-guided injection.
Plantar fasciopathy (PF) is characterized by degeneration of the fascia at the calcaneal enthesis. It is a common cause of foot pain, accounting for 90% of clinical presentations of heel pathology. In 2009–2010, 9.3 million working days were lost in England due to musculoskeletal disorders, with 2.4 million of those attributable to lower-limb disorders, averaging 16.3 lost working days per case. Numerous studies have attempted to establish the short- and long-term clinical efficacy of corticosteroid injections in the management of PF. Earlier studies have not informed clinical practice. As the research base has developed, evidence has emerged supporting clinical efficacy. With diverse opinions surrounding the etiology and efficacy debate, there does not seem to be a consensus of opinion on a common treatment pathway. For example, in England, the National Institute for Clinical Health and Excellence does not publish strategic guidance for clinical practice. Herein, we review and evaluate core literature that examines the clinical efficacy of corticosteroid injection as a treatment for PF. Outcome measures were wide ranging but largely yielded results supportive of the short- and long-term benefits of this modality. The analysis also looked to establish, where possible, “proof of concept.” This article provides evidence supporting the clinical efficacy of corticosteroid injections, in particular those guided by imaging technology. The evidence challenges existing orthodoxy, which marginalizes this treatment as a secondary option. This challenge is supported by recently revised guidelines published by the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons advocating corticosteroid injection as a primary treatment option. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(5): 418–429, 2013)
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of high-dose extracorporeal shockwave therapy applied with an ankle block and corticosteroid injection in patients with plantar fasciitis whose symptoms persisted for more than 6 months.
Methods: Sixty patients were assessed clinically at presentation and at 3-month follow-up with a patient-assessed 100-mm visual analog scale of pain and a physician-assessed heel tenderness index. A therapeutic response rate was evaluated. A decrease of at least 50% from baseline to 3 months in visual analog scale or heel tenderness index scores was accepted as a successful result.
Results: Extracorporeal shockwave therapy and corticosteroid injection provided significant improvements in visual analog scale and heel tenderness index scores, but between the two groups there was no significant difference in the visual analog scale score change 3 months after treatment (P > .05). Twenty-seven of 33 patients (82%) in the extracorporeal shockwave therapy group and 23 of 27 (85%) in the corticosteroid injection group had a successful therapeutic response after 3 months.
Conclusions: Corticosteroid injection and extracorporeal shockwave therapy are successful treatment modalities for plantar fasciitis. Corticosteroid injection treatment is cost effective compared with extracorporeal shockwave therapy, and corticosteroid injection may be the first treatment choice according to these results. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(2): 105–110, 2010)
We compared the long-term clinical and ultrasonographic effects of radial extracorporeal shockwave therapy (rESWT) versus ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection treatment in patients with plantar fasciitis unresponsive to conservative therapy.
Seventy-two patients with unilateral plantar fasciitis were randomized to receive either rESWT (three times once per week) (n = 36) or corticosteroid treatment (a single 1-mL dose of betamethasone sodium plus 0.5 mL of prilocaine under ultrasound guidance by injection into the plantar fascia) (n = 36). The primary outcome measures were visual analog scale (VAS) and Foot Function Index (FFI) scores. Secondary outcome measures included the heel tenderness index (HTI) score and plantar fascia thickness (PFT) as obtained by ultrasound examination. All of the assessments were performed at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment.
Significant improvements were observed in the rESWT group in VAS, HTI, and FFI scores and PFT at the end of treatment and were maintained during follow-up. Posttreatment improvements in VAS, HTI, and FFI scores and PFT were also seen in the corticosteroid group but were not maintained for VAS and FFI scores after the completion of therapy and were lost at 1 and 6 months, respectively. No serious treatment-related complications occurred.
Both rESWT and corticosteroid injection therapy are effective modalities for treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis. However, rESWT seems to be superior to corticosteroid injection therapy due to its longer duration of action.
Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common clinical presentations seen by podiatric clinicians today. With corticosteroid injection being a classic treatment modality and extracorporeal pulse-activated therapy (EPAT) technology improving, the purpose of this study was to retrospectively compare pain and functional outcomes of patients with plantar fasciitis treated with either injection or EPAT.
Between November 1, 2014, and April 30, 2016, 60 patients who met the inclusion criteria were treated with either corticosteroid injection or EPAT. Patients were evaluated with both the visual analog scale (VAS) and the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society Hindfoot Score at each visit.
The EPAT was found to reduce pain on the VAS by a mean of 1.98 points, whereas corticosteroid injection reduced pain by a mean of 0.94 points. This was a significant reduction in the VAS score for EPAT compared with corticosteroid injection (P = .035).
Extracorporeal pulse-activated therapy is as effective as corticosteroid injection, if not more so, for the treatment of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis and should be considered earlier in the treatment course of plantar fasciitis.
In a prospective randomized study of plantar heel pain, 44 patients were treated with injection of 1 mL of 2% prilocaine using the peppering technique, 1 mL of 2% prilocaine combined with 2 mL of autologous blood, or 1 mL of 2% prilocaine mixed with 40 mg of methylprednisolone acetate. At 6-month follow-up, clinical improvement was evaluated by using a 10-cm visual analog scale and the rearfoot score of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society. Results were analyzed using sample t-tests within groups and repeated-measures analyses of variance between groups. Mean ± SD visual analog scale scores in the peppering technique, autologous blood injection, and corticosteroid injection groups improved from 6.4 ± 1.1, 7.6 ± 1.3, and 7.28 ± 1.2 to 2.0 ± 2.2 (P < .001), 2.4 ± 1.8 (P < .001), and 2.57 ± 2.9 (P < .001), respectively. Mean ± SD rearfoot scores in the same groups improved from 64.1 ± 15.1, 71.6 ± 1, and 65.7 ± 12.7 to 78.2 ± 12.4 (P = .018), 80.9 ± 13.9 (P = .025), and 80.07 ± 17.5 (P = .030), respectively. There were no statistically significant differences among the groups. Good outcomes have been documented using the peppering technique and autologous blood injection for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Although the curative mechanisms of both injection modalities are based on a hypothesis, they seem to be good alternatives to corticosteroid injection for the treatment of plantar heel pain. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(4): 293–296, 2006)
The authors review histologic findings from 50 cases of heel spur surgery for chronic plantar fasciitis. Findings include myxoid degeneration with fragmentation and degeneration of the plantar fascia and bone marrow vascular ectasia. Histologic findings are presented to support the thesis that “plantar fasciitis” is a degenerative fasciosis without inflammation, not a fasciitis. These findings suggest that treatment regimens such as serial corticosteroid injections into the plantar fascia should be reevaluated in the absence of inflammation and in light of their potential to induce plantar fascial rupture. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(3): 234-237, 2003)
Background: To determine the effectiveness of four different local injection modalities in the treatment of plantar fasciitis.
Methods: In a prospective randomized multicenter study of plantar fasciitis, 100 patients were divided into four equal groups and were treated using four different methods of local injection: group A was treated with 2 mL of autologous blood alone; group B, an anesthetic (2 mL of lidocaine) combined with peppering; group C, a corticosteroid (2 mL of triamcinolone) alone; and group D, a corticosteroid (2 mL of triamcinolone) combined with peppering. The outcome was defined by using a 10-cm visual analog scale and modified criteria of the Roles and Maudsley score 3 weeks and 6 months after the injection and compared with the pretreatment condition.
Results: The successful results in all of the groups after injections were higher than those in the pretreatment condition (P = .000). In groups C and D, in which local corticosteroid injections were used, excellent results were obtained, with superior effect in the group in which peppering was used (P < .05).
Conclusions: In the treatment of plantar fasciitis, combined corticosteroid injections and peppering is effective and produces better clinical results. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(2): 108–113, 2009)
We report a case of an unusual and unsuspected chronic infection creating a soft-tissue mass in the foot of a 35-year-old woman. The causative agent, Mycobacterium gordonae, is usually encountered as a laboratory contaminant. Only rarely does it manifest as a clinical infection. The patient’s presumed predisposing risk factor was a history of barefoot gardening. An iatrogenic source, corticosteroid injections, was also considered. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(4): 311–313, 2008)