This case describes delayed treatment of a medial talonavicular dislocation with a shear fracture of the talar head, comminuted posterior talar process fracture, and an intra-articular cuboid fracture with subtle medial displacement of the calcanealcuboid joint and the associated treatment. The injury was sustained in a 35-year-old male following a high-energy motor vehicle accident. Three weeks following the injury, delayed treatment was achieved following an attempted closed reduction under general anesthesia followed by open reduction and percutaneous kirschner wire fixation. After a 12-month follow-up the patient was able to return to work and regular activities pain free without complications. Several associated injuries have been described with isolated talonavicular dislocations. This case reviews the technique and care surrounding this injury pattern and its delayed treatment.
Extraskeletal chondroma is a benign tumor that is found most often in the fingers but can be found in the feet as well. A symptom of this lesion is pressure from the slow-growing mass. We present the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with an extraskeletal chondroma in the plantar aspect of the left first metatarsophalangeal joint with concomitant symptomatic arthrosis at the joint. Operative treatment was excision of the lesion in addition to arthrodesis of the joint attributable to the presence of symptomatic arthrosis. The patient was seen approximately 1 year postoperatively and had no postoperative complications. Distinction between extraskeletal chondromas and other lesions, such as extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas, is critical because delayed treatment of the latter has the propensity to lead to detriment to the patient. Therefore, proper diagnosis is critical.
Charcot arthropathy is an acute or subacute, often indolent, non-infectious or tumorous osteoarticular destruction of weightbearing skeletal structures in patients with reduced pain perception due to peripheral neuropathy. The authors present a rare case of progressive Charcot arthropathy of the first metatarsophalangeal joint with accompanying ulcer and foot deformity due to peripheral neuropathy. An arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint with resection of the hypertrophic bone and osteophytes using a locking plate was performed. Also a condylectomy of the base of the proximal phalanx digitus II and III as well as a shortening osteotomy of the third metatarsal were conducted. The ulcer was debrided and primarily closed by suture. Mobilization was performed without weightbearing in a postoperative shoe for 6 weeks, the ulcer was completely healed and the arthrodesis had fused. Owing to the complexity of Charcot arthropathy careful preoperative evaluation, timing and dimension of surgery as well as treatment of associated comorbidities and sufficient postoperative care is important to reduce the complication rate and improve long-term results. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(2): 161–164, 2012)
The purpose of this article is to review the history and development of evidence-based medicine, to provide a basic outline of its application to clinical care, and to discuss its pros and cons. This article can be used as a tool in podiatric medicine and surgery to ensure that current best evidence, clinical intuition, and patient preferences inform and guide our medical decision making. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(4): 374–377, 2006)
In this prospective study, 30 patients (28 men and 2 women) with open ankle fractures were treated with early debridement and immediate stable internal fixation after anatomical reduction to achieve better functional results after early mobilization. The procedure was performed an average of 8 hours (range, 6–15 hours) after injury. According to the classification system of Gustilo and Anderson, 11 fractures (37%) were grade I, 12 (40%) were grade II, 5 (17%) were grade IIIA, and 2 (7%) were grade IIIB. Six complications occurred: four patients had superficial skin necrosis and two had loss of reduction, resulting in residual ankle stiffness. Twenty patients had excellent results, eight had good results, and two had fair results according to the modified criteria of Ketenjian and Shelton. We found that immediate debridement, anatomical reduction, and internal fixation of open ankle fractures leads to better functional results, especially in grade I and grade II injuries. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(2): 120–124, 2006)
Stress fractures of the foot and ankle are common in the athletic population. Because this population is especially eager to return to activity, such fractures can be challenging to treat. If the biomechanical faults are not addressed or gradual return to activity is not monitored appropriately, fractures occasionally recur. A retrospective analysis was conducted of 96 athletes who presented to a podiatric sports medicine practice over the course of 10 years with stress fractures confirmed by radiograph or bone scan. The most common type of fracture sustained by this population was tibial stress fracture, followed by second metatarsal fracture. Marathon training was the most common pre-injury activity overall, although fitness walking was the most common activity among those with metatarsal fractures. This study relates the most common types of stress fractures of the foot, ankle, and leg to certain athletic activities and correlates duration of symptoms before presentation with return-to-activity time. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(1): 81–84, 2007)
The timely and accurate noninvasive assessment of peripheral arterial disease is a critical component of a limb preservation initiative in patients with diabetes mellitus. Noninvasive vascular studies can be useful in screening patients with diabetes for peripheral arterial disease. In patients with clinical signs or symptoms, noninvasive vascular studies provide crucial information on the presence, location, and severity of peripheral arterial disease and an objective assessment of the potential for primary healing of an index wound or a surgical incision. Appropriately selected noninvasive vascular studies are important in the decision-making process to determine whether and what type of intervention might be most appropriate given the clinical circumstances. Hemodynamic monitoring is likewise important after either an endovascular procedure or a surgical bypass. Surveillance studies, usually with a combination of physiologic testing and imaging with duplex ultrasound, accurately identify recurrent disease before the occurrence of thrombosis, allowing targeted reintervention. Noninvasive vascular studies can be broadly grouped into three general categories: physiologic or hemodynamic measurements, anatomical imaging, and measurements of tissue perfusion. These types of tests and suggestions for their appropriate application in patients with diabetes are reviewed. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(5): 406–411, 2010)
Linezolid, a mild monoamine oxidase inhibitor, is a commonly used antibiotic drug for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections, including diabetic foot infections. Use of linezolid has been associated with serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition typically caused by the combination of two or more medications with serotonergic properties, due to increased serotonin release. The goals of this article are to highlight the risk factors associated with the development of serotonin syndrome related to the use of linezolid and to aid in its prevention and early diagnosis. In this case series we report on two hospitalized patients who, while being treated with linezolid for pedal infections, developed serotonin syndrome. Both individuals were also undergoing treatment with at least one serotonergic agent for depression and had received this medication within 2 weeks of starting the antibiotic drug therapy. In these individuals, we noted agitation, confusion, tremors, and tachycardia within a few days of initiation of linezolid therapy. Owing to the risk of serotonin toxicity, care should be taken when prescribing linezolid in conjunction with any other serotonergic agent. Although serotonin syndrome is an infrequent complication, it can be potentially life threatening. Therefore, risks and benefits of therapy should be weighed before use.
Skin grafting provides an effective means of closing chronic wounds. Autografts and allografts are used most often in skin grafting, but Apligraf, a tissue-engineered bilayered human skin equivalent, provides another safe and effective grafting option for treating diabetic, venous, and pressure ulcers. This skin equivalent has an epidermis and dermis similar to human skin, largely due to its derivation from neonatal foreskin. Apligraf is also easily accessible and has shown little immunoreactivity. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(1): 19-23, 2002)
Emergency department visits for lower extremity complications of diabetes are extremely common throughout the world. Surprisingly, recent data suggest that such visits generate an 81.2% hospital admission rate with an annual bill of at least $1.2 billion in the United States alone. The likelihood of amputation and other subsequent adverse outcomes is strongly associated with three factors: 1) wound severity (degree of tissue loss), 2) ischemia, and 3) foot infection. Using these factors, this article outlines the basic principles needed to create an evidence-based, rapid foot assessment for diabetic foot ulcers presenting to the emergency department, and suggests the establishment of a “hot foot line” for an organized, expeditious response from limb salvage team members. We present a nearly immediate assessment and referral system for patients with atraumatic tissue loss below the knee that has the potential to vastly expedite lower extremity triage in the emergency room setting through greater collaboration and organization.