Unstable fracture-dislocation of the ankle is a common lower extremity injury. Treatment is challenging when the fracture-dislocation is open and cannot be treated with conventional open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Immediate ORIF may not be possible for severe, unstable ankle injuries, such as those with ischemic foot due to a poor blood supply caused by soft tissue injury, or open fracture-dislocation of the ankle with a deltoid ligament rupture. We described a staged treatment for unstable open fracture-dislocation of the ankle with a deltoid ligament rupture. The first stage involves temporary vertical transarticular pinning combined with external fixation. The second stage involves delayed definitive plating with autogenous bone graft for the bone defect of the distal fibula. This staged management is useful in select emergency cases of unstable open fracture-dislocations of the ankle combined with deltoid ligament rupture for which conventional ORIF cannot be performed.
Unstable fracture-dislocation of the ankle is a common lower-extremity injury. Treatment is challenging when the fracture-dislocation is open and cannot be treated with conventional open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Immediate ORIF may not be possible for severe, unstable ankle injuries, such as those with ischemic foot because of a poor blood supply caused by soft-tissue injury, or open fracture-dislocation of the ankle with a deltoid ligament rupture. We describe a staged treatment for unstable open fracture-dislocation of the ankle with a deltoid ligament rupture. The first stage involves temporary vertical transarticular pinning combined with external fixation. The second stage involves delayed definitive plating with autogenous bone graft for the bone defect of the distal fibula. This staged management is useful in select emergency cases of unstable open fracture-dislocations of the ankle combined with deltoid ligament rupture for which conventional ORIF cannot be performed.
Pure open dislocation of the ankle, or dislocation not accompanied by rupture of the tibiofibular syndesmosis ligaments or fractures of the malleoli or of the posterior border of the tibia, is an extremely rare injury. A 62-year-old man injured his right ankle in a motor vehicle accident. Besides posterolateral ankle dislocation, there was a 7-cm transverse skin cut on the medial malleolus, and the distal end of the tibia was exposed. After reduction, we made a 2- to 2.5-cm longitudinal incision on the lateral malleolus; the distal fibular fracture was exposed. Two Kirschner wires were placed intramedullary in a retrograde manner, and the fracture was stabilized. The deltoid ligament and the medial capsule were repaired. The tibiofibular syndesmosis ligaments were intact. At the end of postoperative year 1, right ankle joint range of motion had a limit of approximately 5° in dorsiflexion, 10° in plantarflexion, 5° in inversion, and 0° in eversion. The joint appeared normal on radiographs, with no signs of osteoarthritis or calcification. The best result can be obtained with early reduction, debridement, medial capsule and deltoid ligament restoration, and early rehabilitation. Clinical and radiographic features at long-term follow-up also confirm good mobility of the ankle without degenerative change or mechanical instability. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(6): 469–472, 2008)
Fifth metatarsal base fractures are the most commonly seen fractures of the foot. Ankle sprains occur with inversion and plantarflexion mechanisms, similar to most fifth metatarsal base fractures. We sought to investigate the possible ankle injuries that accompany fifth metatarsal base fractures.
A hospital's digital database was searched for the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes for metatarsal bone fractures (codes S92.30 and S92.35) between January 2015 and January 2018. Thirty-nine patients with fifth metatarsal base fracture who underwent ankle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 14 days of injury were included in the study. The MRI findings were evaluated, and comparisons were performed according to fracture zone, sex, and age.
The most common MRI finding was talocrural joint effusion, which was observed in 28 patients (71.8%). Bone marrow edema was observed in 16 patients (41.0%). Chondral injury at the medial dome of talus was observed in three patients (7.7%). Grade 1 ligament sprain was observed in six patients (15.4%): two in the lateral ligament and four in the deltoid ligament.
Although most fifth metatarsal base fractures and ankle sprains occur as a result of a common mechanism, physical examination findings and patients' complaints are very important. Routine MRI should be unnecessary for most patients. If a patient with a fifth metatarsal base fracture has complaints about the ankle joint, one should be aware of bone marrow edema, which was observed in 41.0% of the study population.
We present a case of a snowboard injury that caused a combination of a complete deltoid and anterior talofibular ligament rupture, without bony or syndesmotic injury. Initial surgical repair for both ligaments was performed. We describe the etiology of this injury to demonstrate the cause and existence of medial and lateral ankle ligament rupture without osseous and syndesmotic involvement and to create awareness of these types of injuries.
We sought first to determine the efficacy of lateral ankle fixation alone in maintenance of medial clear space and talar valgus in bimalleolar equivalent ankle fractures not receiving primary deltoid repair, and second to assess perceived outcomes via the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score. To our knowledge, no study has quantified the reduction of medial clear space and talar valgus in bimalleolar equivalent ankle fractures receiving lateral ankle fixation alone.
We compared preoperative, initial postoperative, and greater than 1-year follow-up radiographs of medial clear space and talar valgus in individuals who received lateral ankle fixation alone in bimalleolar equivalent ankle fractures. Subjective outcomes were measured via the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score.
Thirty-seven patients participated in the study and showed a statistically significant reduction of medial clear space and restoration of talar position, and maintenance with this fixation method during follow-up in patients with bimalleolar equivalent ankle fractures. Adjunctively, patients perceived their outcomes to be satisfactory, as demonstrated by the results of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score.
We aimed to assess the efficacy of lateral ankle fixation in the maintenance of medial clear space and talar valgus reduction at midterm follow-up. Although some authors contend that primary deltoid repair in bimalleolar equivalent ankle fractures is warranted, these midterm study results suggest that isolated lateral ankle fixation is adequate for medial ankle stabilization in bimalleolar equivalent fractures, and thus primary deltoid repair is not indicated.
Magnetic resonance imaging is playing an increasingly important role in evaluation of the injured athlete’s foot and ankle. Magnetic resonance imaging allows accurate detection of bony abnormalities, such as stress fractures, and soft-tissue abnormalities, including ligament tears, tendon tears, and tendinopathy. The interpreter of magnetic resonance images should systematically review the images, noting normal structures and accounting for changes in soft-tissue and bony signal. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(1): 59–67, 2007)
The Lauge-Hansen classification does not cover all types of ankle injuries. The present report details three cases of exceptional fragment of the medial tibia that differed from the traditional Lauge-Hansen supination–external rotation and pronation–external rotation fracture patterns. The information obtained from this study will be helpful for conducting basic research of this condition and determining appropriate surgical approaches.
Two patients with syndesmotic rupture without fracture are presented to demonstrate that ligamentous injury to the distal syndesmosis can occur as an isolated injury. In both cases diagnosis was delayed owing to a negative radiograph on the day of injury. Comprehensive follow-up is imperative to correctly diagnose this injury pattern. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(4): 336-339, 2003)
The Bosworth ankle fracture-dislocation is a rare injury and is often irreducible because of an entrapped proximal fragment of the fibula behind the posterior tibial tubercle. Repeated closed reduction or delayed open reduction may result in several complications. Thus, early open reduction and internal fixation enable a better outcome by minimizing soft-tissue damage. We report on a 27-year-old man who underwent open reduction and internal fixation after multiple attempts at failed closed reduction, complicated by severe soft-tissue swelling, rhabdomyolysis, and delayed peroneal nerve palsy around the ankle.