Intralesional epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been available as a medication in Turkey since 2012. We present the results of our experience using intralesional EGF in Turkey for patients with diabetic foot wounds.
A total of 174 patients from 25 Turkish medical centers were evaluated for this retrospective study. We recorded the data on enrolled individuals on custom-designed patient follow-up forms. Patients received intralesional injections of 75 μg of EGF three times per week and were monitored daily for adverse reactions to treatment. Patients were followed up for varying periods after termination of EGF treatments.
Median treatment duration was 4 weeks, and median frequency of EGF administration was 12 doses. Complete response (granulation tissue >75% or wound closure) was observed in 116 patients (66.7%). Wounds closed with only EGF administration in 81 patients (46.6%) and in conjunction with various surgical interventions after EGF administration in 65 patients (37.3%). Overall, 146 of the wounds (83.9%) were closed at the end of therapy. Five patients (2.9%) required major amputation. Adverse effects were reported in 97 patients (55.7%).
In patients with diabetic foot ulcer who received standard care, additional intralesional EGF application after infection control provided high healing rates with low amputation rates.
Wound debridement, when systematically performed, may be as important as off-loading in reducing the prevalence of chronic inflammatory by-products in a wound and thus in converting a chronic wound into an acute one. Although it has been suggested that aggressive surgical debridement of wounds may be beneficial, there have been few, if any, technical descriptions of this aspect of therapy. It is therefore the purpose of this article to describe the general principles, process, and technique of outpatient surgical debridement of noninfected, nonischemic neuropathic diabetic foot wounds performed at the authors’ institutions. The authors hope to foster further discussion leading to improvement in the process and the prevalence of such debridement. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(7): 402-404, 2002)
The etiology of neuropathic diabetic foot wounds can be summarized by the following formula: pressure × cycles of repetitive stress = ulceration. The final pathway to ulceration consists of an inflammatory response, leading to tissue breakdown. Mitigation of this response might reduce the risk of ulceration. This proof-of-concept trial evaluates whether simple cooling of the foot can safely reduce the time to thermal equilibrium after activity. After a 15-min brisk walk, the six nondiabetic volunteers enrolled were randomly assigned to receive either air cooling or a 10-min 55°F cool water bath followed by air cooling. The process was then repeated with the intervention reversed, allowing subjects to serve as their own controls. There was a rise in mean ± SD skin temperature after 15 min of activity versus preactivity levels (87.8° ± 3.9° versus 79° ± 2.2° F; P = .0001). Water cooling immediately brought the foot to a point cooler than preactivity levels for all subjects, whereas air cooling required an average of nearly 17 min to do so. Ten minutes of cooling required a mean ± SD of 26.2 ± 5.9 min to warm to preactivity levels. No adverse effects resulted from the intervention. We conclude that cooling the foot may be a safe and effective method of reducing inflammation and may serve as a prophylactic or interventional tool to reduce skin breakdown risk. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(2): 103–107, 2005)
Diabetic foot wounds remain a significant health-care issue. Healing these wounds in a timely manner is of paramount importance because the duration of ulceration correlates with increased rates of infection and amputation, costing billions of dollars yearly. Collagen-based matrices have been used as wound covers and have been shown to improve and expedite healing. We present our experience with equine pericardium biomatrix for the treatment of neuropathic foot wounds.
Thirty-four patients with 37 diabetic foot wounds were evaluated at two institutions prospectively. All of the wounds were debrided, and equine pericardium biomatrix was applied. Secondary dressings were changed every 48 to 72 hours until healed or for 12 weeks after application. Healing rate at 12 weeks, time to wound closure, and complications were evaluated.
Twenty-two men and 12 women (mean age, 56.9 years) were treated and evaluated. Mean and median wound sizes at initial treatment were 715.8 and 440 mm2, respectively. The overall wound healing rate by 12 weeks was 75.7% (n =28). Mean and median times to wound closure were 7.2 and 7.0 weeks, respectively. No device or procedure-related complications were reported.
The use of equine pericardium as a temporary biological scaffold is safe and effective for the treatment of chronic neuropathic foot wounds. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(5): 352–358, 2012)
The use of bioengineered tissue and topical subatmospheric pressure therapy have both been widely accepted as adjunctive therapies for the treatment of noninfected, nonischemic diabetic foot wounds. This article describes a temporally overlapping method of care that includes a period of simultaneous application of bioengineered tissue (Apligraf, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp, East Hanover, New Jersey) and subatmospheric pressure therapy delivered through the VAC (Vacuum Assisted Closure) system (KCI, Inc, San Antonio, Texas). Future descriptive and analytic works may test the hypothesis that combined therapies used at different and often overlapping periods during the wound-healing cycle may be more effective than a single modality. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(7): 395-397, 2002)
The purpose of this article is to present reference guidelines to assist clinicians when treating diabetic patients with foot wounds. Diabetic patients with limb-threatening foot ulcers often have multiple coexisting medical conditions that frequently become impediments to the resolution of foot wounds. Each foot wound is unique and its etiology is multifactorial; therefore, each foot wound should be managed differently. The treatment algorithm presented in this article is divided into three categories: Algorithm I describes the treatment of septic foot wounds, which may be considered true podiatric surgical emergencies; Algorithm II describes the treatment of ischemic foot ulcers or gangrene with or without underlying osteomyelitis; and Algorithm III describes the treatment of neuropathic foot ulcers with or without underlying osteomyelitis. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(6): 336-349, 2002)
Background: Treatment of diabetic foot wounds remains a major health-care issue, with diabetic foot ulcers representing the most common causal pathway to lower-extremity amputation. Although several investigations have examined topical collagen-based dressings, none have specifically looked at equine pericardium. We, therefore, evaluated the effect of the equine pericardium dressing on neuropathic foot wounds.
Methods: Twenty-three consecutive patients with 34 neuropathic foot wounds were evaluated as part of a pilot study. An equine pericardium dressing was applied in a standard manner, and the patients followed a standard postapplication treatment protocol. Changes in wound size were recorded when the equine dressing was removed and 4 and 12 weeks after application. Patients underwent dressing changes every 3 to 4 days until healed or for 12 weeks.
Results: Thirty-two wounds in 22 patients were prospectively available for evaluation. On enrollment, the median wound size was 299 mm2. When the equine material was removed (mean, 2.9 weeks), 30 of the wounds (94%) had improved, with a median size of 115 mm2 and an average reduction in size of 44.3% (P < .0001). At 4 weeks, the average decrease in wound size was 52.3% (P < .0001). At 12 weeks, 15 wounds (47%) had healed.
Conclusions: This first report of equine pericardium used to treat neuropathic foot ulcerations demonstrates that the equine pericardium dressing is a safe and beneficial treatment for neuropathic wounds. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(4): 301–305, 2009)
Previous study indicates that pharmacologic antithrombotic therapy may be an inhibitory factor for wound healing and should merit consideration among the other core factors in wound healing optimization.
This study provides a retrospective analysis of the effect of antithrombotic therapy on wound healing rates of uncomplicated diabetic foot ulcerations. Wounds treated with standard of care in the presence of clinical anticoagulation were compared to control wounds.
The results indicate a statistically significant negative correlation between antithrombotic therapy and diabetic foot wound healing rate. This represents the first study focusing on this correlation in the uncomplicated diabetic foot wound.
This retrospective study demonstrates that antithrombotic therapy has a statistically significant negative effect on healing rates of uncomplicated diabetic foot ulcerations. Both wound area and depth improvement over 4 weeks was significantly better in treated patients who were not on antithrombotic therapy for comorbidity not associated with peripheral arterial disease.
Vaporous Hyperoxia Therapy (VHTTM), a patented FDA-510 (k) cleared technology, is an adjunct therapy used in conjunction with standard wound care (SWC). VHT is said to improve the health of wounded tissue by administering a low-frequency, non-contact, non-thermal ionic anti-microbial hydrating mist alternating with concentrated topical oxygen therapy (TOT). VHT was used to treat 36 subjects with chronic diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) that were previously treated unsuccessfully with SWC. The average age of DFU in the study was 11 months old and the average size was over 3 cm2. Wounds were either Wagner Grade 2 or 3 and most commonly on the plantar surface around the midfoot. Treatment consisted of twice weekly applications of VHT and wound debridement. Subjects were followed to wound closure, 20 weeks, or 40 treatments, whichever came first. The combination of SWC and VHT in the group that met and maintained compliance throughout the study period achieved an 83% DFU closure rate within a 20-week time period. The average time for DFU closure in this study was 9.4 weeks. Historical analysis of SWC shows a 30.9% healing rate of all wounds, not differentiating chronic wounds. Accordingly, SWC/VHT increases chronic diabetic foot ulcer healing rates by 2.85 times compared with SWC alone. The purpose of this study was two-fold: first, to observe the effect of VHT on healing rates and time to healing in previously nonhealing DFUs and second, to compare VHT with SWC, TOT and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) and ultrasound therapies.
The authors evaluated the time to healing and prevalence of complications in patients undergoing mechanically assisted, delayed primary closure of diabetic foot wounds compared with a similar population who received standard wound care. A total of 55 patients were enrolled for study, with 25 in the experimental group and 30 in the control group. Patients in the experimental (stretch) group underwent mechanically assisted primary closure of their wounds using a skin-stretching device. There was no difference between the stretch and control groups with regard to any descriptive characteristics, including wound chronicity. Although the wounds were over three times as large on average in the stretch group (P < .001), the stretch group reached full epithelialization approximately 40% sooner than the control group (26.4 +/- 16.0 versus 42.5 +/- 19.9 days; P < .002). Eighty-eight percent of patients in the stretch group experienced wound dehiscence, at a mean time of 1.8 +/- 0.6 weeks following mechanically assisted closure. However, patients who experienced dehiscence in the stretch group healed significantly faster than patients in the control group (27.4 +/- 16.7 versus 42.5 +/- 19.9 days; P < .007). The results of this study suggest that mechanically assisted closure of diabetic foot wounds may result in reduced healing time compared with healing by secondary intention.