BACKGROUND: Morton's neuromas are abnormalities of the common digital nerve branch located between the lesser metatarsal heads. Historically, interdigital (Morton's) neuromas have been characterized as being most common in the third interspace and predominantly identified in females. The principal investigator observed Morton's neuromas commonly in both the 2nd and 3rd interspaces in both genders. To the best of our knowledge, no literature exists to evaluate Morton's neuroma location with a focus on each gender independently. The present study evaluates Morton's neuroma interspace location and if there is a variation between males and females.METHODS: In this retrospective study, 582 de-identified ProScan magnetic resonance imaging reports, with a diagnosis code for Morton's neuroma (ICD Code 355.6), were obtained from their centralized database. These reports were evaluated for patients scanned from January 2015-April 2016. Incomplete records and those where the radiologist findings were not consistent with Morton's neuroma were eliminated. For the remaining 379 patients, data was collected on several factors such as gender, laterality, history of trauma, plantar plate tear, age and interspace location. Special focus was given to second and third interspace Morton's neuromas. Data was then evaluated statistically utilizing the Pearson Chi-Square and Independent Samples Mann-Whitney U Test with statistical significance deemed p<0.05. RESULTS: No statistically significant distribution between gender and second and third interspace Morton's neuromas were noted. Additionally, right vs left foot, age and history of trauma did not vary between genders in a significant way. Lastly, there was a statistically significant difference between the presence of plantar plate tears between genders. Male patients with Morton's neuromas were found to have a higher rate of plantar plate tears (34/92, p=0.01).CONCLUSION: Our study found that there was not a statistically significant difference between female and male and Morton's neuromas location, laterality or age.
Background: The establishment of growth reference values is needed in pediatric practice where pathologic conditions can have a detrimental effect on the growth and development of the pediatric foot. This study aims to use multiple regression to evaluate the effects of multiple predictor variables (height, age, body mass, and gender) on anthropometric characteristics of the peripubescent foot.
Methods: Two hundred children aged 9 to 12 years were recruited, and three anthropometric measurements of the pediatric foot were recorded (foot length, forefoot width, and navicular height).
Results: Multiple regression analysis was conducted, and coefficients for gender, height, and body mass all had significant relationships for the prediction of forefoot width and foot length (P = .05, r = 0.7). The coefficients for gender and body mass were not significant for the prediction of navicular height (P = .05), whereas height was (P = .05).
Conclusions: Normative growth reference values and prognostic regression equations are presented for the peripubescent foot. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(6): 497–502, 2009)
This article reviews the extent of health-care students’ computer literacy and presents the results of a survey of podiatric medical students’ computer literacy. The results of this survey indicate that podiatric medical students are more likely than other health-care students to rate their computer literacy as good or very good. There was no gender difference in this self-reported computer knowledge. The implications for designing and using Web-based instructional materials and technology for podiatric medical students are discussed. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(4): 375–381, 2004)
Background: The purposes of this study were 1) to determine the intrarater and interrater reliability of the arch height index measurement system device, 2) to establish population normative values for the arch height index in recreational runners, and 3) to compare arch height index values between the right and left feet and between genders.
Methods: Eleven subjects were used to establish intrarater and interrater reliability of the arch height index measurement system. This system was then used to measure the arch height index of 100 recreational runners.
Results: Measurements taken with the arch height index measurement system device exhibited high intrarater and interrater reliability. The mean ± SD arch height index of the recreational runners was 0.340 ± 0.030. Men had larger feet than women, but the arch height index between genders was similar.
Conclusions: The arch height index measurement system device is reliable to use between testers while simplifying the measurement procedure for recording the arch height index. The arch height index may be helpful in identifying potential structural factors that predispose individuals to lower-extremity injuries. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(2): 102–106, 2008)
Proximal fibular stress fractures are rare injuries that usually result from jumping and running activities of military recruits and athletes. This article describes a female university athlete with proximal lateral leg pain diagnosed by means of a triphase bone scan as proximal fibular stress fracture and proximal to middle one-third tibial stress fracture. This case highlights the need to examine not only the sport but also the athlete’s training habits to identify possible factors contributing to the injury. Body type, biomechanics, and gender are also possible etiologic factors. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(4): 340-343, 2003)
Podiatric medical students in Australia were surveyed to evaluate their reasons for entering podiatric medicine, knowledge of aging, attitudes toward older people, perceptions of treatment efficacy, and desire to specialize in geriatrics. Few students plan to specialize in geriatrics upon graduation (4%), with most preferring general practice (25%) or sports medicine (21%). However, knowledge of aging was good, and students had favorable attitudes toward older people and considered treatment of older people to be effective. Few age- or gender-related effects were observed. It is concluded that students’ lack of desire to specialize in geriatrics may be due not to unfavorable perceptions of older people but rather to the low profile and limited development of geriatrics as a specialty area within the podiatric medical profession. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(1): 11-17, 2003)
A study of radiographs from 50 males and 50 females was undertaken to determine whether a relationship existed between the proximal articular set angle and the hallux abductus angle. Gender differences in the relationship were also investigated. The normal range for the proximal articular set angle was –2.6° to 8.6°, with a mean of 5°. There was no significant difference in the mean values between males and females. A positive linear correlation between the proximal articular set angle and hallux abducto valgus deformity was found (R2 = 0.52), suggesting that an increased lateral tilt of the metatarsal head is one of the factors that lead to hallux abducto valgus deformity. The relationship between proximal articular set angle and hallux abducto valgus deformity was similar in males and females and did not account for the increased hallux deformity seen in females. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(6): 331-335, 2002)
Health-related quality of life (QOL) is defined as a patient's subjective perception of his or her own health. Insufficient data exist on QOL of patients who undergo a hallux valgus (HV) operation. We used a 36-item short form survey (SF-36) to measure QOL of such patients. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of HV on QOL and to identify QOL determinants.
Fifty patients who underwent surgery for HV between 2015 and 2017 were included in the study. The SF-36 questionnaire was applied to the patients before and after surgery. Patients' medical records were examined to identify possible factors affecting QOL such as age, gender, body mass index, duration of symptoms, or smoking.
The mean age of the patients was 55.6 ± 3.8 years, and 42 of the 50 patients were women. The mean duration of disease was 12 ± 3.7 years. The surgery improved QOL scores for general health, emotional well-being, role limitations due to personal or emotional problems, physical functioning and bodily pain. However, the changes in scores for vitality and social functioning were not statistically significant. Lower postoperative QOL scores for emotional well-being and bodily pain were significantly associated with age and duration of the symptoms. Compared to the mean QOL of healthy adult Turkish population, all scores in subdimensions were lower.
This study shows that HV in adults has a negative impact on general health, bodily pain, physical functioning, physical and emotional well-being rather than social well-being and vitality.
Reduction in first metatarsophalangeal joint maximum degree of dorsiflexion with dorsiflexion of the first ray has been proposed to be the predominant cause of hallux abducto valgus and hallux rigidus. We sought to determine whether orthoses made from a cast with the first ray plantarflexed and a 4-mm medial skive could increase the maximum degree of dorsiflexion in patients with functional hallux limitus in stance and gait. Forty-eight feet of 27 subjects were casted for orthoses with the first ray plantarflexed and in the customary neutral rearfoot position with locked midtarsal joint. First metatarsophalangeal joint maximum dorsiflexion was measured with and without orthoses in stance, and subhallux pressure was measured with and without orthoses at heel-off. Changes in mean maximum dorsiflexion in stance and in mean maximum subhallux pressure in gait with orthoses were significant. We investigated the relationship between this increase in dorsiflexion and gender, shoe size, resting calcaneal stance position, and change in resting calcaneal stance position with the use of orthoses. These correlations were not statistically significant. The biomechanical implication of increasing limited first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion with orthoses is discussed and related to the clinical treatment of deformities, including hallux valgus and hallux rigidus. The use of orthoses to decrease subhallux pressure is also discussed. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(6): 474–481, 2006)
Measurement of the medial longitudinal foot arch in children is a controversial topic, as there are many different methods without a definite standard procedure. The purpose of this study was to 1) investigate intraday and interrater reliability regarding dynamic arch index and static arch height, 2) explore the correlation between both arch indices, and 3) examine the variation of the medial longitudinal arch at two different times of the day.
Eighty-six children (mean ± SD age, 8.9 ± 1.9 years) participated in the study. Dynamic footprint data were captured with a pedobarographic platform. For static arch measurements, a specially constructed caliper was used to assess heel-to-toe length and dorsum height. A mixed model was established to determine reliability and variation.
Reliability was found to be excellent for the static arch height index in sitting (intraday, 0.90; interrater, 0.80) and standing positions (0.88 and 0.85) and for the dynamic arch index (both 1.00). There was poor correlation between static and dynamic assessment of the medial longitudinal arch (standing dynamic arch index, r = –0.138; sitting dynamic arch index, r = –0.070). Static measurements were found to be significantly influenced by the time of day (P < .001), whereas the dynamic arch index was unchanged (P = .845). This study revealed some further important findings. The static arch height index is influenced by gender (P = .004), whereas dynamic arch index is influenced by side (P = .011) and body mass index (P < .001).
Dynamic and static foot measurements are reliable for medial longitudinal foot arch assessment in children. The variation of static arch measurements during the day has to be kept in mind. For clinical purposes, static and dynamic arch data should be interpreted separately.