Background: To evaluate clinicians' compliance to follow national guidelines for tetanus vaccination prophylaxis in high-risk foot patients. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 114 consecutive patients between June 2011 and March 2019 who presented with a foot infection resulting from a puncture injury through the emergency department. Eighty-three patients had diabetes mellitus and 31 patients did not have diabetes mellitus. Electronic medical records were used to collect a broad range of study data on patient demographics, previous medical history, previous tetanus immunization history and tetanus status upon presentation to the emergency department (ED), peripheral arterial disease, sensory neuropathy, laboratory values, and clinical / surgical outcomes. Results: 46.5% of the patients who presented to the ED with a puncture wound did not have up-to-date tetanus immunization. Of those patients, 79.2% received a tetanus-containing vaccine booster, 3.8% received intramuscular tetanus immunoglobulins (TIG), 3.8% received both tetanus-containing vaccine booster and TIG, and 20.8% received no form of tetanus prophylaxis. When comparing data between patients with and without diabetes, there were no statistical significant differences in tetanus prophylaxis. Conclusion: Guidelines for tetanus prophylaxis amongst high-risk foot patients in this study center are not followed in all patients. Patients with DM are at high risks of exposure to tetanus, we recommend physicians to take a detailed tetanus immunization history and vaccinate them if tetanus history is unclear.
Although tetanus is a preventable disease, several cases are reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention each year. Many conditions treated by podiatric physicians carry the risk of infection by Clostridium tetani, and it is advisable for podiatrists to update a patient's tetanus immunization status if the patient presents with a tetanus-prone wound.
Polyarteritis nodosa is a progressive, often life-threatening, vasculitis affecting multiple organs, including the skin and peripheral nerves. We report a patient presenting with systemic features of the disease and with characteristic lesions in the feet 3 weeks after vaccination against hepatitis B virus infection.
Pure open dislocation of the ankle, or dislocation not accompanied by rupture of the tibiofibular syndesmosis ligaments or fractures of the malleoli or of the posterior border of the tibia, is an extremely rare injury. A 62-year-old man injured his right ankle in a motor vehicle accident. Besides posterolateral ankle dislocation, there was a 7-cm transverse skin cut on the medial malleolus, and the distal end of the tibia was exposed. After reduction, we made a 2- to 2.5-cm longitudinal incision on the lateral malleolus; the distal fibular fracture was exposed. Two Kirschner wires were placed intramedullary in a retrograde manner, and the fracture was stabilized. The deltoid ligament and the medial capsule were repaired. The tibiofibular syndesmosis ligaments were intact. At the end of postoperative year 1, right ankle joint range of motion had a limit of approximately 5° in dorsiflexion, 10° in plantarflexion, 5° in inversion, and 0° in eversion. The joint appeared normal on radiographs, with no signs of osteoarthritis or calcification. The best result can be obtained with early reduction, debridement, medial capsule and deltoid ligament restoration, and early rehabilitation. Clinical and radiographic features at long-term follow-up also confirm good mobility of the ankle without degenerative change or mechanical instability. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(6): 469–472, 2008)
Herpetic whitlow is a viral infection of the fingers or toes caused by the herpes simplex virus. Herpes simplex virus is a common pathogen that causes infections in any cutaneous or mucocutaneous surface, most commonly gingivostomatitis or genital herpes. However, infection of the digits is also infrequently reported. Herpetic whitlow occurs when the virus infects the distal phalanx of the fingers or toes by means of direct inoculation, causing pain, swelling, erythema, and vesicle formation. The proper diagnosis is important because the condition can mimic various other podiatric abnormalities such as paronychia, bacterial cellulitis, or even embolic disease. Improper diagnosis often leads to unnecessary work-up, antibiotic therapy, or even surgical intervention. This case will help illuminate the clinical presentation of herpetic whitlow in an atypical location, and the patient’s subsequent treatment. We present an atypical case of right hallux herpetic whitlow with delayed diagnosis and associated cellulitis. The patient was admitted after seeing multiple providers for a progressive right hallux infection that presented as a mixture of vesicular lesions and apparent cellulitis. His history was positive for biting his fingernails and toenails, and the lesions were noted to be honeycomb-like, with minimal drainage. The lesions were then deroofed and viral cultures were obtained, which were positive for herpes simplex virus type 1, thus confirming a diagnosis of herpetic whitlow. Although he remained afebrile with negative wound cultures during admission, a secondary bacterial infection could not be excluded because of his nail avulsion and surrounding cellulitis. He was discharged on oral antibiotics, antivirals, and wound care recommendations. Herpetic whitlow should be included in the differential diagnosis of pedal digital lesions that appear as vesicular or cellulitic in the pediatric population.
The elderly make more frequent use of general podiatric medical services than the younger population. It is therefore important for podiatric physicians to become familiar with the general principles of infectious disease as applied to an elderly population, which is susceptible to a wider spectrum of disease with more subtle and unusual clinical signs and symptoms. This article reviews the diagnosis and evaluation of suspected infection, appropriate laboratory testing, patterns of specific infectious disease syndromes, and antibiotic use in the elderly. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(2): 126-134, 2004)
We describe a 70-year-old nonimmunocompromised woman with spontaneous bilateral ankle and midfoot sepsis and a deep-space abscess of the right lower leg. Salvage of both limbs was achieved by aggressive bilateral soft-tissue and osseous debridement, including a four-compartment fasciotomy of the right lower leg, antibiotic-loaded polymethyl methacrylate bone cement implantation, delayed allogeneic bone grafting of the osseous defects impregnated with autologous platelet-rich plasma bilaterally, and external fixation immobilization, implantable bone growth stimulation, and split-thickness skin graft coverage of the right lower leg, ankle, and foot. Osseous incorporation of the bone grafts bilaterally occurred 8 weeks after surgery. No soft-tissue or osseous complications occurred during the postoperative period or at 18-month follow-up except for arthrofibrosis in the right ankle; there was no evidence of recurrent abscesses, sequestrum, or wound-related problems. A review of the literature regarding bilateral pedal sepsis and the techniques used for limb salvage in this patient are presented in detail. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(2): 139–147, 2006)
Although many medical problems are generally managed in concert with a general medical physician, it is important for the podiatric physician to be familiar with some of the major diseases of the lung. Pneumonia, an infectious process within the lung, is the sixth-leading overall cause of death. Antibiotic treatment, oxygen administration, and supportive care are the mainstays of its therapy. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presents as a spectrum from chronic bronchitis, with a greater inflammatory component, to emphysema, with a more significant destructive component. Asthma, often a more episodic chronic obstructive disease, is characterized by inflammation of the airways leading to their narrowing. The work of breathing is often increased in these diseases, and treatment is with combination therapies with a focus on smoking cessation. Thromboembolic disease, the occlusion of blood vessels with consequent interruption of blood flow, may occur in a patient with risk factors, especially after surgery. Treatment is with anticoagulation agents or in some cases with thrombolysis. Prophylaxis is key. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(2): 157-167, 2004)