Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), formerly ubiquitous and disposable in the hospital and healthcare environment, has become scarce during the COVID-19 pandemic. This shortage has precipitated creative solutions to re-use and/or extend the lifetime of PPE, most notably the N95 mask. This article attempts to summarize options regarding re-use of N95 respirators and is for informational purposes only.
The fourth year of podiatric medical school is an important period in the education of the podiatric medical student, a period that consists largely of month-long clerkships. Nonetheless, there has been limited formal study of the quality of learning experiences during this period. Furthermore, there is limited knowledge of how podiatric medical students evaluate residency programs during clerkships.
An online survey was developed and distributed electronically to fourth-year podiatric medical school students. The focus of the survey was the quality of learning experiences during externships, and decision making in ranking residency programs.
The most valuable learning experiences during clerkships were interactions with attending physicians, interactions with residents, and general feedback in surgery. Students self-identified that they most improved in the following areas during clerkships: forefoot surgery, clinical podiatry skills, and rearfoot surgery. The areas in which students improved the least were research, pediatrics, and practice management. The three most important factors students considered as they created their rank list were hands-on resident participation in surgical training, the attitude and personality of the residents, and the attitude and personality of the attending physicians. A range of surgical interest was identified among students, and students lacking in surgical interest self-reported less improvement in various surgical topics.
The perspectives of fourth-year podiatric medical students are currently an underused resource. Improved understanding can help residency programs improve the quality of associated learning experiences and can make their programs more appealing to potential residency candidates.
Background: Many authors have highlighted the role of muscle strength imbalance around the ankle in the development of recurrent clubfoot following Ponseti treatment. However, this possible underlying mechanism behind recurrence has not been investigated sufficiently to date. This study aimed to explore whether there is a relationship between Achilles tendon elongation and recurrent metatarsus adductus deformity in children with unilateral clubfeet treated by the Ponseti method.
Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on 20 children (14 boys and six girls; mean age, 7 years; age range, 5–9 years) with a recurrent metatarsus adductus deformity treated by the Ponseti method for unilateral idiopathic clubfoot. At the final follow-up, isometric muscle strength was measured using a portable, hand-held dynamometer in reciprocal muscle groups of the ankle. The length of the tendons around the ankle was measured ultrasonographically.
Results: The plantarflexion-to-dorsiflexion ratio was lower on the involved side (P = .001). No significant differences in the strength ratio of inversion to eversion were found (P = .4). No difference was observed in lengths of tibialis anterior and posterior tendons (P = .1), but the Achilles tendon was longer on the involved side (P = .001; P < .01). A significant negative correlation was discovered between involved-to-uninvolved Achilles tendon length ratios and involved-to-uninvolved plantarflexion strength ratios (r = –0.524; P = .02)
Conclusions: Achilles tendon elongation may be a contributor to the muscle imbalance in clubfeet with relapsed forefoot adduction treated by the Ponseti technique.
The minimally invasive technique (percutaneous screw fixation) is one of the options for treating tongue-type IIC fractures successfully. The aim of this study was to assess the biomechanics of four different screw configurations used for the fixation of tongue-type IIC calcaneal fractures.
Identical osteotomies, recapitulating a type IIC injury, were created in synthetic calcaneus specimens using a saw. The specimens were randomly assigned to one of the four fixation groups (n = 7 per group): two divergent screws, two parallel screws, two parallel screws plus one screw axially oriented toward the sustentaculum tali, and three parallel screws. A load test was performed on all of the groups, and the specimens were then tested using offset axial loading until 2, 4, and 5 mm of fracture displacement occurred.
Mean force values for the three–parallel screw construct at 2-, 4-, and 5-mm fracture displacements were found to be significantly higher compared with those for the other groups.
The use of a three–parallel screw construct seems to provide more stability in the treatment of tongue-type IIC fractures.
Foot and nail care specialists spend a great portion of their day using nail drills to reduce nail thickness and smooth foot calluses. This process generates a large amount of dust, some of which is small enough to breathe in and deposit into the deepest regions of the respiratory tract, potentially causing health problems. Foot and nail dust often contains fungi, from both fungus-infected and healthy-appearing nails. Although the majority of healthy individuals can tolerate inhaled fungi, the immune systems of older, immunocompromised, and allergy-prone individuals often react using the inflammatory T helper cell type 2 pathway, leading to mucus overproduction, bronchoconstriction, and, in severe cases, lung tissue damage. To protect vulnerable podiatry professionals, wearing a surgical mask, using a water spray suppression system on nail drills, installing air filtration systems, and considering drilling technique can help reduce exposure to nail dust.