Unstable fracture-dislocation of the ankle is a common lower extremity injury. Treatment is challenging when the fracture-dislocation is open and cannot be treated with conventional open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Immediate ORIF may not be possible for severe, unstable ankle injuries, such as those with ischemic foot due to a poor blood supply caused by soft tissue injury, or open fracture-dislocation of the ankle with a deltoid ligament rupture. We described a staged treatment for unstable open fracture-dislocation of the ankle with a deltoid ligament rupture. The first stage involves temporary vertical transarticular pinning combined with external fixation. The second stage involves delayed definitive plating with autogenous bone graft for the bone defect of the distal fibula. This staged management is useful in select emergency cases of unstable open fracture-dislocations of the ankle combined with deltoid ligament rupture for which conventional ORIF cannot be performed.
Unstable fracture-dislocation of the ankle is a common lower-extremity injury. Treatment is challenging when the fracture-dislocation is open and cannot be treated with conventional open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Immediate ORIF may not be possible for severe, unstable ankle injuries, such as those with ischemic foot because of a poor blood supply caused by soft-tissue injury, or open fracture-dislocation of the ankle with a deltoid ligament rupture. We describe a staged treatment for unstable open fracture-dislocation of the ankle with a deltoid ligament rupture. The first stage involves temporary vertical transarticular pinning combined with external fixation. The second stage involves delayed definitive plating with autogenous bone graft for the bone defect of the distal fibula. This staged management is useful in select emergency cases of unstable open fracture-dislocations of the ankle combined with deltoid ligament rupture for which conventional ORIF cannot be performed.
Open fracture-dislocation of the lower extremity poses a serious risk, has a high incidence of complications, and necessitates prompt surgical intervention. Patients need to be evaluated on presentation to the emergency department for neurovascular injury, soft-tissue insult, stability of the fracture, concomitant injuries, and overall medical/nutritional status. Implementation of a specific treatment protocol will decrease time to operative management and increase the overall success rate. Success after treatment of lower-extremity trauma should be defined as a noninfected, functional limb with optimal tissue preservation allowing ambulation. We present a case of open fracture-dislocation of the first ray treated with prompt debridement, skeletal stabilization, and immediate soft-tissue reconstruction. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(1): 76–80, 2013)
We report a unique case of the total loss of the intermediate cuneiform by posttraumatic avascular necrosis resulting from a left foot open fracture and dislocation of the navicular bone and medial and intermediate cuneiforms at the Chopart and Lisfranc joints in a 64-year-old woman. The injury was managed with open reduction and internal fixation with Kirschner wires and cannulated screws. During postoperative follow-up, we observed avascular necrosis of the intermediate cuneiform and the total loss of the bone. An extensive English literature search revealed only one case report published on this topic. Thus, we provide this case study to help guide clinical decision making in the future.
Natural disasters, such as hurricanes and severe flooding, pose a threat of increased skin and soft-tissue infections, especially in the event of open fractures and wading through the waters. The purpose of this case study is to present a complex patient sustaining trauma resulting in an open bimalleolar fracture, multiple wounds, and exposure to a variety of water-borne pathogens during Hurricane Harvey in Houston, Texas, in 2017. He underwent multiple incision and drainage procedures, tissue cultures, and placement of antibiotic beads, with an application of external fixation to the left ankle. Several unique multidrug-resistant water-borne pathogens were identified, including Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens/putida, and Serratia marcescens. Once the soft-tissue envelope was restored and infection cleared, a full-thickness rotational flap with tissue expansion was performed. Ultimate reconstruction was delayed several weeks and final left ankle open reduction and internal fixation was performed following antimicrobial treatment with split-thickness skin autograft and wound vacuum-assisted closure application. The patient was discharged after 28 days with no further complications. In instances such as these, all caretakers coming into contact with the patient should be aware of the potential risks of the possible infectious diseases and management to optimize the recovery following hydrologic disasters.
Complex soft-tissue injuries consist of difficult traumatic injuries caused by high-energy mechanisms such as motor vehicle accidents, lawnmower injuries, and crush injuries from heavy objects. Many times, because of the high-energy trauma, there is significant damage to the soft tissue and underlying bone, leading to a complex situation for healing. In this case report, a 43-year-old woman presented with extensive degloving injury and open fractures of the forefoot resulting from a lawnmower accident. After extensive irrigation and debridement, wound closure was achieved using a full-thickness skin graft (FTSG). Although many case reports have been published about management of these complex soft-tissue injuries, there are no reports on using an autologous FTSG from a neighboring digit undergoing distal amputation for wound coverage. This report discusses the technique of using an autologous FTSG from an amputated specimen to achieve wound coverage with adequate limb salvage principles.
Background: This retrospective study of a case series analyzed the results from the application of a distally based adipofascial sural flap for nonweightbearing defects of the foot and ankle.
Methods: Twenty-eight patients with post-traumatic ankle and foot defects (ten women and 18 men; age range, 17–63 years) underwent surgery between November 1, 2003, and November 30, 2008. Distally based adipofascial sural flaps were used in ten open fractures, 14 soft-tissue post-traumatic defects, and four deep burns. Defects were on the dorsal side of the foot (eight cases), the lateral malleolus (four cases), the medial malleolus and inframalleolar region (four cases), the Achilles tendon region (eight cases), and the anterior surface of the ankle (four cases). Surgical procedures were performed by a single surgeon (A.M.).
Results: All of the flaps healed uneventfully. There was no partial or total flap loss. All 28 patients walked normally at the time of follow-up. Three delayed healings occurred at the donor site.
Conclusions: This is a homogeneous series of lower-limb reconstructions with the distally based adipofascial sural flap, which permits better analysis of the results. This flap has a constant and reliable blood supply. It can be used for the reconstruction of nonweightbearing foot and ankle regions to avoid the bulky volume of the fasciocutaneous flap in this area and to minimize the donor site scar. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(1): 41–48, 2011)
Isolated dislocation of the ankle with grade III open fracture has been scarcely reported. These ankle injuries usually involved mortise fractures, complete dislocation of the tibial astragaloid joint, capsuloligamentous structure disruption, and severe soft-tissue damage. There is no well-recognized regimen that would result in desirable outcomes.
Sixteen patients with grade III open dislocated ankle fractures were treated immediately with bioabsorbable implants and an external fixator between January 2003 and June 2007. According to the classification system of Gustilo and Anderson, five patients were grade IIIA, seven were grade IIIB, and four were grade IIIC. Surgical interventions included combined internal fixation with bioabsorbable screws/rods and external fixation.
Patients underwent clinical and radiologic examination at an average of 18.1 months after surgery. Outcomes were excellent in seven patients (three IIIA, three IIIB, and one IIIC), good in four (one IIIA, two IIIB, and one IIIC), fair in three (one IIIA, one IIIB, and one IIIC), and poor in two (one IIIB, and one IIIC). In the two patients with poor outcomes, bone defect and cartilage exfoliating in the distal tibia were found during surgery. Painful osteoarthritis in the ankle was discovered 2 years after surgery. Another case had pin tract infections in the external fixator 3 months after surgery. There was no case of late deep infection.
It may be a reasonable and desirable option that bioabsorbable implants combined with an external fixator be applied for treatment of severe open dislocated ankle fractures. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(4): 307–315, 2011)
Isolated medial cuneiform fracture is a rare but diagnostically challenging condition. Diagnostic delay in these cases may lead to delays in ideal treatment approaches and prolonged symptoms. An understanding of clinical presentation is needed to expedite diagnosis, facilitate decision making, and guide treatment approach.
Case studies/series were searched in four databases until September 2019. Included studies had participants with a history of traumatic closed medial cuneiform fracture. Studies were excluded if the medial cuneiform fractures were open fractures, associated with multitrauma, or associated with dislocation/Lisfranc injury. Three blinded reviewers assessed the methodological quality of the studies, and a qualitative synthesis was performed.
Ten studies comprising 15 patients were identified. Mean ± SD patient age was 38.0 ± 12.8 years, with 86.7% of reported participants being men. The overall methodological quality was moderate to high, and reporting of the patient selection criteria was poor overall. The most commonly reported clinical symptoms were localized tenderness (60.0%) and edema (53.3%). Direct blow was the most common inciting trauma (46.2%), followed by axial load (30.8%) and avulsion injuries (23.1%). Baseline radiographs were occult in 72.7% of patients; magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography were the most common diagnostic modalities. Mean ± SD diagnostic delay was 64.7 ± 89.6 days. Conservative management was pursued in 54.5% of patients, with reported resolution of symptoms in 3 to 6 months. Surgical intervention occurred in 45.5% of patients and resulted in functional restoration in 3 to 6 months in all but one patient.
Initial radiographs for isolated medial cuneiform fractures are frequently occult. Due to expedience and relatively low cost, radiographs are still a viable first-line imaging modality. If clinical concern remains, magnetic resonance imaging may be pursued to minimize diagnostic delay. Conservative management is a viable treatment method, with expected return to full function in 3 to 6 months.
Adequate assessment of crush injuries to the hallux is necessary before appropriate management can be initiated. When distal phalangeal fractures of the hallux are detected by routine radiography and subungual hematomas are present, open fractures of the hallux may be overlooked if the physician does not routinely avulse the nailplate. The authors review current modalities for the detection and evaluation of these injuries and present a protocol for treatment.