Low-Dye taping is often used as a short-term treatment for plantar fasciitis. We evaluated the short-term effectiveness of low-Dye taping in relieving pain associated with plantar fasciitis. In this comparative study conducted at a university-based clinic, 65 participants with plantar fasciitis who received low-Dye taping for 3 to 5 days were compared with 40 participants who did not receive taping. Pain before and after treatment was measured using a visual analog pain scale. Analysis of the data was by the intention-to-treat principle, and a linear regression approach to analysis of covariance was used to compare effects. The visual analog pain scale score improved by a mean of 20 mm (from 44 to 24 mm) in the taping group and worsened by a mean of 6 mm (from 51 to 57 mm) in the control group. The analysis of covariance–adjusted difference in therapeutic effect favored the taping group by 31.7 mm (95% confidence interval, 23.6–39.9 mm) and was statistically significant (t = 7.71). In the short term, low-Dye taping significantly reduces the pain associated with plantar fasciitis. These findings are the first quantitative results to demonstrate the significant therapeutic effect of this treatment modality in relieving the symptoms associated with plantar fasciitis. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(6): 525–530, 2005)
Background: The objective of this investigation was to evaluate adverse short-term outcomes following partial forefoot amputation with a specific comparison performed based on subject height.
Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was analyzed to select those subjects with a 28805 CPT code (amputation, foot; transmetatarsal) that underwent the procedure with “all layers of incision (deep and superficial) fully closed.” This resulted in 11 subjects with a height ≤60 inches, 202 subjects with a height >60 inches and <72 inches, and 55 subjects ≥72 inches.
Results: Results of the primary outcome measures found no significant differences between groups with respect to the development of a superficial surgical site infection (0.0% vs. 6.4% vs. 5.5%; p=0.669), deep incisional infection (9.1% vs. 3.5% vs. 10.9%; p=0.076), or wound disruption (0.0% vs. 5.4% vs. 5.5%; p=0.730). Additionally, no significant differences were observed between groups with respect to unplanned reoperations (9.1% vs. 16.8% vs. 12.7%; p=0.0630) or unplanned hospital readmissions (45.5% vs. 23.3% vs. 20.0%; p=0.190).
Conclusions: The results of this investigation demonstrate no difference in short-term adverse outcomes following the performance of partial forefoot amputation with primary closure based on subject height. Although height has previously been described as a potential risk factor in the development of lower extremity pathogenesis, this finding was not observed in this study from a large US database.
Background: The objective of this investigation was to evaluate adverse short-term outcomes following open lower extremity bypass surgery in subjects with diabetes mellitus with a specific comparison performed based on subject height.
Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was analyzed to select those subjects with CPT codes 35533, 35540, 35556, 35558, 35565, 35566, 35570 and 35571 and with the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. This resulted in 83 subjects ≤60 inches, 1084 subjects >60 inches and <72 inches, and 211 subjects ≥72 inches.
Results: No differences were observed between groups with respect to the development of a superficial surgical site infection (9.6% vs. vs. 6.4% vs. 5.7%; p=0.458), deep incisional infection (1.2% vs. 1.4% vs. 2.8%; p=0.289), sepsis (2.4% vs. 2.0% vs. 2.8%; p=0.751), unplanned reoperation (19.3% vs. 15.6% vs. 21.8%; p=0.071), nor unplanned hospital readmission (19.3% vs. 14.8% vs. 17.1%; p=0.573). A significant difference was observed between groups with respect to the development of a wound disruption (4.8% vs. 1.3% vs. 4.7%; p=0.001). A multivariate regression analysis was performed of the wound disruption outcome with the age, gender, race, ethnicity, height, weight, current smoker and open wound/wound infection variables. Race (p=0.025) and weight (p=0.003) were found to be independently associated with wound disruption, but height was not (p=0.701).
Conclusions: The results of this investigation demonstrate no significant difference in short-term adverse outcomes following the performance of lower extremity bypass surgery based on patient height.
Background: Foot orthoses are commonly dispensed for musculoskeletal complaints of the foot and lower limb. Few randomized clinical trials evaluate the clinical effectiveness of foot orthoses.
Methods: In this randomized clinical trial with a crossover design, 42 participants wore custom orthoses and prefabricated inserts in their regular footwear for 4 weeks each, consecutively. Twenty-seven participants received prefabricated inserts first and 13 received custom orthoses first. A numeric pain rating scale (possible score, 0–10) was used to measure participant pain.
Results: Statistically and clinically important decreases in pain were reported after 3 weeks by participants wearing custom orthoses first (−1.39 pain units, t12 = 2.70, P = .02). Participants who wore prefabricated inserts first reported no statistically significant change in pain. When the alternative intervention was introduced, participants now wearing prefabricated inserts had greater pain after 1 and 2 weeks (1.1 pain units, t12 = 3.09, P = .01 and 0.9 pain units, t12 = 2.65, P = .02, respectively). Participants now wearing custom orthoses did not demonstrate significantly lower pain at any week compared with the second baseline but did have significantly lower pain scores compared with their initial baseline scores (−0.81 pain units, t12 = 2.31, P = .03).
Conclusion: Full-contact custom-made foot orthoses provide symptomatic relief after 3 weeks of use for patients with lower-extremity musculoskeletal pain if they are prescribed as the initial treatment. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(5): 357–363, 2008)
Background: It remains controversial whether satisfactory outcomes can be obtained following total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) without osteotomy in patients with severe varus ankle deformities. This study aimed to examine outcomes following TAA without concomitant osteotomies in patients with severe varus ankle alignment by comparing them with those in patients with neutral alignment.
Methods: Fifty-one patients (53 ankles; mean age, 71.4 ± 5.6 years) who underwent TAA using the TNK ankle prosthesis were examined (mean follow-up, 36.8 ± 17.8 months). Patients were allocated into groups according to the preoperative talar tilt (TT) angle: the neutral group (preoperative TT angle <10°; n = 37) and the varus group (preoperative TT angle ≥10°; n = 16). Outcome measures, including the Japanese Society for Surgery of the Foot scale, Self-Administered Foot Evaluation Questionnaire, ankle range of motion, and radiographic parameters, were assessed before surgery and at the final follow-up.
Results: Significant improvements were observed in clinical and radiographic outcomes in both groups after surgery. Postoperative Japanese Society for Surgery of the Foot scale and subscale scores of pain and shoes in the Self-Administered Foot Evaluation Questionnaire were not significantly different between the groups, whereas subscale scores of function, social, and health were greater in the varus group than in the neutral group at the final follow-up. Radiographic parameters, including TT angle and tibial axis-medial malleolus (TMM) angle, improved postoperatively and were not significantly different between the neutral (mean TT angle, 0.5 ± 0.7°; mean TMM angle, 16.0 ± 4.6°) and varus (meanTT angle, 0.4 ± 0.7°; meanTMM angle, 17.0 ± 5.3°) groups at the final follow-up. To achieve neutral alignment, adjunctive procedures were required more often in the varus group.
Conclusions: Outcomes of TAA using the TNK ankle prosthesis were favorable in patients with severe varus ankle and in those with neutral ankle without concomitant osteotomy. Satisfactory outcomes could be achieved in patients with severe varus ankle alignment after TAA without concomitant osteotomy.
Background: Plantar fasciitis (PF) is predominantly treated conservatively through some modalities such as extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT), yet the short effect of these modalities on pain and function is still ambiguous. This study aims to compare the short-term effectiveness of ESWT and LLLT on pain and function in patients with PF.
Methods: Participants (n=47) were randomly assigned into 2 groups as ESWT (n=27) and LLLT (n=20). ESWT (once a week) and LLLT (three times a week) were administered to the participants for 3 weeks. Foot function index (FFI) including pain, disability, and activity limitation subscales was administered at baseline and post-treatment. A reduction of one point in total scores was considered as a minimum clinically important difference. Repeated measures of ANOVA were used to analyze the changes in outcomes and compare the groups.
Results: There were significant main effects of time, and significant interaction effects between
group and time on pain (P<0.001), disability (P<0.001), and activity limitation (P<0.05). The main effect of the group was not significant for all subscales (P=0.811, P=0.481, P=0.865, respectively). The LLLT group showed a significant decline in pain (P<0.001), disability (P<0.001), and activity limitation (P<0.001) while there was no change in the ESWT group over time (P=0.319, P=0.711, P=1.0 respectively). Consistently, 95% of participants in the LLLT had CID in the pain subscale whereas 48% of the ESWT group had.
Conclusions: LLLT was found to be superior to ESWT as an effective approach in the short-term management of PF.
Short-term medical missions are common in medical educational settings and could possibly affect student learning. Little research has been conducted about the potential of these missions on students’ transformative learning, in particular as it relates to empathy and multicultural awareness.
Eight podiatric medical students who participated in short-term medical missions in 2008 and 2009 completed an electronic survey to investigate the effect of their experience as it relates to their learning. The empathy and multicultural awareness impact of the mission experience was emphasized. Qualitative questions in the survey were coded, themed, and triangulated with the quantitative responses.
Six students (75%) “strongly agreed” that participating in the medical mission was a significant positive experience in their podiatric medical training. Six students felt that their experiences in serving these communities increased their personal awareness of multicultural/diversity needs in general. All of the students agreed that they will become better podiatric physicians because of their experiences in the medical missions. The qualitative data also indicate that the experience had an effect on the students’ views of health care and increased empathy toward their patients.
Short-term medical missions could play a significant role in the transformative learning experience in podiatric medical education. This could affect the empathy and multicultural awareness of podiatric medical students. Further and more extensive evaluations of the potential impact of short-term medical missions in podiatric medical education should be explored because it could influence curriculum and global health in the field of podiatric medicine. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(1): 39–46, 2012)
Background: The proximal insertional disorder of the plantar fascia is plantar fasciosis. Although plantar fasciosis is frequently seen by different health-care providers, indistinctness of etiology and pathogenesis is still present. A variety of interventions are seen in clinical practice. Taping constructions are frequently used for the treatment of plantar fasciosis. However, a systematic review assessing the efficacy of this therapy modality is not available.
Methods: To assess the efficacy of a taping construction as an intervention or as part of an intervention in patients with plantar fasciosis on pain and disability, controlled trials were searched for in CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and PEDro using a specific search strategy. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale was used to judge methodological quality. Clinical relevance was assessed with five specific questions. A best-evidence synthesis consisting of five levels of evidence was applied for qualitative analysis.
Results: Five controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. Three trials with high methodological quality and of clinical relevance contributed to the best-evidence synthesis. The findings were strong evidence of pain improvement at 1-week follow-up, inconclusive results for change in level of disability in the short term, and indicative findings that the addition of taping on stretching exercises has a surplus value.
Conclusions: There is limited evidence that taping can reduce pain in the short term in patients with plantar fasciosis. The effect on disability is inconclusive. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(1): 41–51, 2010)
Twenty-six patients with moderate-to-severe hallux valgus deformities were evaluated before and after treatment. All of the patients had incongruent great toe joints. The patients underwent modified proximal crescentic osteotomy, which was termed proximal oblique crescentic osteotomy. The results were evaluated at an average follow-up time of 55 weeks. Objective criteria were hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, shortening of the first metatarsal, and angulation at the osteotomy site. Clinical evaluation was made according to the rating system of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society. The mean correction of the hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angles was 22.1° and 9.9°, respectively. Short-term results indicate that proximal oblique crescentic osteotomy is effective in the treatment of hallux valgus; its advantages over other procedures include its technical ease and low rate of complications. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(1): 43-46, 2004)
Background: Recent research has discussed the use of low-frequency electrical stimulation to increase blood flow by eliciting muscular contraction in soft tissues. This randomized clinical trial examined the efficacy of low-frequency electrical stimulation combined with stretching exercises and foot orthoses in individuals diagnosed as having plantar fasciitis for less than 6 months.
Methods: Twenty-six participants aged 18 to 65 years diagnosed as having plantar fasciitis were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: a control group receiving only stretching and orthoses and a treatment group receiving low-frequency electrical stimulation in addition to stretching and orthoses. To assess treatment response, a visual analog scale was used to determine first-step morning pain, and changes in daily activity levels were monitored by using a validated outcome measure. All of the participants were assessed before starting treatment, after 4 weeks of treatment, and 3 months after the conclusion of treatment.
Results: Participants in the control and experimental groups demonstrated pain reduction and improvements in functional activity levels after 4 weeks and 3 months.
Conclusions: Regardless of whether low-frequency electrical stimulation was used as an intervention, the use of plantar fascia–specific stretching and prefabricated foot orthoses provided short-term (3-month) pain relief and improvement in functional activity levels. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(6): 481–488, 2009)