Unstable fracture-dislocation of the ankle is a common lower extremity injury. Treatment is challenging when the fracture-dislocation is open and cannot be treated with conventional open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Immediate ORIF may not be possible for severe, unstable ankle injuries, such as those with ischemic foot due to a poor blood supply caused by soft tissue injury, or open fracture-dislocation of the ankle with a deltoid ligament rupture. We described a staged treatment for unstable open fracture-dislocation of the ankle with a deltoid ligament rupture. The first stage involves temporary vertical transarticular pinning combined with external fixation. The second stage involves delayed definitive plating with autogenous bone graft for the bone defect of the distal fibula. This staged management is useful in select emergency cases of unstable open fracture-dislocations of the ankle combined with deltoid ligament rupture for which conventional ORIF cannot be performed.
Unstable fracture-dislocation of the ankle is a common lower-extremity injury. Treatment is challenging when the fracture-dislocation is open and cannot be treated with conventional open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Immediate ORIF may not be possible for severe, unstable ankle injuries, such as those with ischemic foot because of a poor blood supply caused by soft-tissue injury, or open fracture-dislocation of the ankle with a deltoid ligament rupture. We describe a staged treatment for unstable open fracture-dislocation of the ankle with a deltoid ligament rupture. The first stage involves temporary vertical transarticular pinning combined with external fixation. The second stage involves delayed definitive plating with autogenous bone graft for the bone defect of the distal fibula. This staged management is useful in select emergency cases of unstable open fracture-dislocations of the ankle combined with deltoid ligament rupture for which conventional ORIF cannot be performed.
Osteomyelitis of the calcaneus combined with a pathologic fracture is a rare and difficult presentation for any practicing foot and ankle surgeon. Treatment for achieving an aseptic nonunion involves a variety of steps, including surgical debridement, antibiotic administration, and fracture stabilization. In this case series, we report a novel technique for the treatment of a tongue-type calcaneal fracture in the setting of chronic osteomyelitis using the Biomet JuggerLoc bone-to-bone system for fixation.
The management guidelines of gunshot wound (GSW) injuries to the lower extremities have primarily been described more recently in the literature. A navicular fracture with adjacent joint involvement is presented from a GSW with initial external fixation management to prevent loss of anatomical alignment and successful staged definitive treatment with internal fixation. Based on previous experiences with rearfoot joint involvement from GSW injuries, we were able to direct definitive treatment with arthrodesis of violated joints. After a 1-year follow-up, the patient has returned to normal activities without any limitations. This case report demonstrates a stepwise approach to management of an open navicular fracture secondary to a GSW.
Consumptive coagulopathy resulting in a disseminated intravascular coagulation is most often seen in infectious diseases and hematologic malignancies. Solid tumors may be associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation that results in gangrene of the upper extremity. A case report of lower-extremity gangrene as the pathology for gastric carcinoma is presented. The need for a multidisciplinary approach to this clinical presentation is noted. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(3): 149-152, 2002)
This case study presents a novel technique of end-to-end implantation of cadaver graft for the repair of a complete transversely torn peroneus brevis tendon and partially torn peroneus longus tendon in a 58-year-old woman with chronic lateral ankle instability and associated lateral collateral tears. She had a history of multiple ankle sprains and had previously undergone a failed peroneus brevis tendon retubularization procedure. The use of cadaver graft is well documented in the literature for tendon repairs but not well documented in end-to-end repair of the peroneal tendons. A review of the literature revealed only one 2013 study reporting on the benefits and clinical outcomes of cadaver allograft use in peroneal reconstruction.
Talar injuries that are associated with pilon fractures include talar body fractures, osteochondral defects, and posterior process talar fractures. Pilon fractures, in combination with talar dome fractures, have not yet been reported in the scientific literature. We report the case of a 15-year-old boy who sustained a pilon fracture with a lateral talar dome fracture. The pilon fracture was initially fixed using a temporary external fixator for soft-tissue care. After the swelling subsided, definitive internal fixation was performed. First, the lateral talar dome fracture was directly reduced and fixed using a small anterolateral approach of the ankle. Then, the intra-articular portion of the pilon fracture was directly reduced using the same anterolateral approach and an additional small anteromedial approach, and the extra-articular metaphyseal portion of the pilon fracture was indirectly reduced. The pilon fracture was finally fixed with an anterolateral distal tibia plate, using a submuscular plating technique through the anterolateral approach and a separate proximal skin incision. A medial distal tibia plate was later added using a subcutaneous plating technique through the anteromedial approach and another proximal skin incision. Both the pilon fracture and the lateral talar dome fracture were addressed simultaneously through a combination of the small anterolateral and anteromedial approaches.
Achilles tendon rupture is a common athletic injury that results in a painful and antalgic gait. Flexor hallucis longus tendon transfer through arthroscopic, single-incision, or double-incision techniques is used as a treatment approach to address this rupture; however, no studies have compared postoperative complications between these three techniques. A systematic search of published articles was conducted using keywords “Achilles rupture,” “flexor hallucis tendon,” “transfer,” and “recovery.” Articles were then selected based on their title, abstract, and content following full-text review. From each article's reported surgical outcomes, a comparison was made between arthroscopic and single- and double-incision postoperative complications using a χ2 test with significance set at a value of P < .05 followed by post hoc analysis. The arthroscopic approach maintained the lowest rate of postoperative complications, followed by the single- and double-incision techniques. A significant difference in the number of postoperative complications was found between all incisional approaches. The pairwise comparisons, however, could not identify which incisional approaches significantly differed between each other. A reduction in postoperative complications places arthroscopy and the single-incision techniques as the preferred approaches for flexor hallucis longus tendon transfer following an Achilles tendon rupture. Although current literature shows arthroscopy to be superior to single- and double-incision methods, this review demonstrates the need for a greater number of published cases using arthroscopy to establish significance regarding postoperative complications.
Tendinopathy in the presence of gouty arthropathy is relatively common, yet the clinical suspicion for gout involvement in acute tendon pain remains low. A 49-year-old man presented with an acute, tender, erythematous mass to the right posterior heel. A computed tomographic scan was obtained, which revealed a septated fluid collection superficial to the Achilles tendon. The patient was taken to the operating room for an incision and drainage with debridement, and the abscess was found to be filled with caseous material. The diagnosis of gout was confirmed with pathology. The calcaneus was submitted to biopsy, and the results were negative for osteomyelitis. The patient was returned to the operating room for repair of the Achilles tendon with flexor hallucis longus tendon transfer. Postoperatively, the patient was nonweightbearing for 6 weeks. Oral colchicine was used perioperatively, and a steroid taper was administered. The patient was started on allopurinol and colchicine for chronic treatment. At 14 months, the patient was walking without pain or recurrence of the mass. Although the relationship between hyperuricemia and tendinopathy is not completely understood, it is apparent that tendon involvement may be a sequela in patients with gout. When a patient presents with acute tendon pain, gout should be considered in the differential diagnosis.
Retrograde intramedullary nailing for tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis (TTCA) is used for severe hindfoot deformities, end-stage arthritis, and limb salvage. The procedure is technically demanding, with complications such as infection, hardware failure, nonunion, osteomyelitis, and possible limb loss or death. This study reports the outcomes and complications of patients undergoing TTCA with a femoral nail, which is widely available and offers an extensive range of lengths and diameters.
We performed a retrospective review of 104 patients who underwent 109 TTCAs using a femoral nail as the primary procedure (January 2006 through December 2016). Demographic data, risk factors, and outcomes were evaluated.
At final follow-up, the overall clinical union rate was 89 of 109 (81.7%). Diabetes mellitus was negatively associated with limb salvage (P = .03), and peripheral neuropathy (P = .02) and Charcot's neuroarthropathy (P = .03) were negatively associated with clinical union. Only four patients (3.8%) underwent proximal amputation, at an average of 6.1 months, and 11 patients (10.6%) died, at a mean of 38.0 months. The most common complication was ulceration in 27 of 109 limbs (24.8%), followed by infection in 25 (22.9%). Twenty-three patients (22.1%) underwent revision procedures, at a mean of 9.4 months. Thirteen of these 23 patients (56.5%) had antibiotic cement rod spacers/rods for deep infection–related complications.
Use of a femoral nail has been shown to provide similar outcomes and limb salvage rates compared with other methods of TTCA reported for similar indications in the literature.