Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography are used widely for the diagnosis of Morton’s neuroma. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of these two modalities as diagnostic tools in Morton’s neuroma.
Fifty feet of 47 consecutive patients (39 women and 8 men; mean age, 46 years; age range, 36–64 years) who presented between January 1, 2005, and June 30, 2008, were included in the study. Twenty-five feet were investigated with ultrasonography and 25 with MRI. Morton’s neuroma was confirmed surgically and histologically in all of the patients. A Student unpaired t test was applied.
Twenty-two MRIs were diagnostic (sensitivity, 88%). Three patients with negative MRI findings underwent ultrasonography and were found to have a neuroma smaller than 5 mm. Twenty-four ultrasound scans demonstrated the neuroma (sensitivity, 96%), with five neuromas being smaller than 5 mm.
Ultrasonography has a slightly higher sensitivity in the diagnosis of Morton’s neuroma, particularly of neuromas smaller than 5 mm, and should be the preferred imaging modality in suspected cases, and MRI should be reserved for cases with equivocal diagnosis. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(3): 184–186, 2012)
Background: The effectiveness of different energy levels used in extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) have been investigated in previous studies, but controversy remains regarding which energy levels should be used in the treatment of plantar fasciitis. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of different energy levels used in ESWT in the treatment of plantar fasciitis through comparisons of plantar fascia thickness and pressure distribution.
Methods: Between July 2020 and September 2020, a total of 51 patients (71 feet) with plantar fasciitis were randomized into three treatment groups using the sealed envelope method. Group 1 (n = 25) received low energy density (0.09 mJ/mm2 ), Group 2 (n = 25) received medium energy density (0.18 mJ/mm2), and Group 3 (n = 21) received high energy density (0.38 mJ/mm2). All groups received three sessions of ESWT with a frequency of 2,000 shocks/min at one week intervals. The patients were evaluated before and after treatment using a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, the Foot Function Index (FFI), and plantar fascia thickness measured by ultrasonography, and plantar pressure distribution.
Results: The posttreatment VAS and FFI scores were determined to be statistically significantly lower than the pretreatment values in all three groups (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the pre and post treatment values of VAS, FFI scores, plantar fascia thickness and pressure distribution (p>0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between the groups in terms of percentage changes in all the outcome parameters (p>0.05).
Conclusions: The results of the study suggest that neither low, medium, or high levels of ESWT were superior to one another in terms of pain, foot functions, fascia thickness and pressure distribution in the treatment of plantar fasciitis.
We present the ultrasonographic morphology of an actinomycetoma of the foot at 18 and 70 MHz (high-frequency and ultrahigh-frequency ultrasound, respectively), and describe an ultrasonographic sign that may help to discriminate between eumycetoma and actinomycetoma called the “bright hyperechoic halo.” To date, this is the first report on the morphology of mycetoma at 70 MHz with a clinical, ultrasonographic, and histologic correlation of the images, which provides ultrasound images that are very similar to the lower magnification of histology.
We report on the unusual presentation of a schwannoma. Aside from the aberrant dorsolateral anatomical presentation, ultrasonography revealed not only peripheral vascularity but also internal vascularity. Internal vascularity often suggests a malignant process as opposed to a benign one; however, in the presented case, the diagnosis of a benign lesion was confirmed with S100 immunohistochemical staining. In this study, we review the literature on this pathology and present an uncommon presentation of a benign nerve tumor.
Lipomas are the most common benign soft-tissue tumors found in the body. They tend to occur in areas of abundant adipose tissue, which explains why they are rarely found in the sole. Very few published cases of lipomas in the sole exist. When lipomas cannot be excised for histologic confirmation, ultrasonography has been shown to be a valuable assessment tool with high diagnostic capabilities. We present the case of 100-year-old patient with a long-standing plantar mass with late-stage clinical and sonographic features of a calcified lipoma.
Heel pain is a prevalent concern in orthopedic clinics, and there are numerous pathologic abnormalities that can cause heel pain. Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain, and the plantar fascia thickens in this process. It has been found that thickening to greater than 4 mm in ultrasonographic measurements can be accepted as meaningful in diagnoses. Herein, we aimed to measure normal plantar fascia thickness in adults using ultrasonography.
We used ultrasonography to measure the plantar fascia thickness of 156 healthy adults in both feet between April 1, 2011, and June 30, 2011. These adults had no previous heel pain. The 156 participants comprised 88 women (56.4%) and 68 men (43.6%) (mean age, 37.9 years; range, 18–65 years). The weight, height, and body mass index of the participants were recorded, and statistical analyses were conducted.
The mean ± SD (range) plantar fascia thickness measurements for subgroups of the sample were as follows: 3.284 ± 0.56 mm (2.4–5.1 mm) for male right feet, 3.3 ± 0.55 mm (2.5–5.0 mm) for male left feet, 2.842 ± 0.42 mm (1.8–4.1 mm) for female right feet, and 2.8 ± 0.44 mm (1.8–4.3 mm) for female left feet. The overall mean ± SD (range) thickness for the right foot was 3.035 ± 0.53 mm (1.8–5.1 mm) and for the left foot was 3.053 ± 0.54 mm (1.8–5.0 mm). There was a statistically significant and positive correlation between plantar fascia thickness and participant age, weight, height, and body mass index.
The plantar fascia thickness of adults without heel pain was measured to be less than 4 mm in most participants (~92%). There was no statistically significant difference between the thickness of the right and left foot plantar fascia.
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) for the treatment of Morton's neuroma by measuring changes in patient pain, function, and neuroma size.
Methods: Patients with Morton's neuroma were randomly assigned to either the ESWT group or the sham stimulation group. Outcome measures, including visual analog scale (VAS) and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society lesser toes (AOFAS) scores, were assessed at baseline and 1 and 4 weeks after treatment. The Johnson satisfaction test was also performed 1 and 4 weeks after treatment. The neuroma diameter was measured using ultrasonography at baseline and 4 weeks after treatment.
Results: Patients receiving ESWT exhibited significantly decreased VAS scores 1 and 4 weeks after treatment relative to baseline, and AOFAS scores were significantly improved 4 weeks after treatment relative to baseline. In the sham stimulation group, VAS and AOFAS scores showed no significant changes at any time after treatment. Neither group showed significant changes in Johnson satisfaction test results or neuroma diameter.
Conclusions: These results suggest that ESWT may reduce pain in patients with Morton's neuroma.
Ultrasonography is an underutilized tool in the armamentarium of the foot and ankle surgeon. The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the different applications of musculoskeletal ultrasonography of the foot and ankle. The advantages and disadvantages of this imaging modality are described.
Inclusion cysts are benign lesions that appear as a consequence of traumatic inclusion of epidermal cells into the dermis. They can be painful if they appear under pressure areas, especially the metatarsal heads. We report a case of a 36-year-old woman with an intractable plantar keratosis lesion under the third metatarsal head of 3 years’ duration. Ultrasonography revealed the presence of a subcutaneous mass with a growing epidermoid. It was surgically excised, and pathology confirmed the diagnosis of a plantar epidermoid cyst. All symptoms disappeared after the excision of the lesion. This case should alert the clinician about the existence of keratotic lesions in the metatarsal heads commonly diagnosed and treated as intractable plantar keratosis, although they are not directly derived from metatarsal overload. Some of the lesions could be directly derived from skin problems aggravated by pressure from the metatarsal head. This should be taken into consideration when addressing the management of these lesions. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(2): 148–152, 2009)