Background: Ultraviolet-A therapy is a simple, inexpensive, and effective modality for wound healing with tremendous potential to improve healing and reduce clinical infections in several clinical settings. To date, application of UV-A relies on bulky and hard to dose lamps that provide inconsistent therapy, thus making it difficult to apply therapy that is appropriate for the patient. Methods: This study was designed to test the effectiveness of a novel wound therapy device that combines UV-A with traditional negative pressure wound therapy to promote wound healing. Further, we tested the ability of fiber optic UV-A delivery to inhibit bacterial proliferation. Finally, we assayed the level of DNA damage that results from UV-A as compared to established UV-C therapies. Wound healing studies were performed in a porcine model using an articulated therapy arm that allows for continued therapy administration over an extended time course. Negative pressure wound therapy was administered alone or with ultraviolet-A fiber optic therapy for 2 weeks. Dressings were changed twice a week at which time wound area was assessed. Results: Data demonstrate that UV-A with NPWT treatment of wounds results in greater healing than NPWT alone. Using the same therapy device, we demonstrate that exposure of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to fiber optic UV-A results in decreased colony area and number of both bacterial strains. Finally, we show that UV-A induces minimal DNA damage in human fibroblasts and no more DNA damage in wound tissue as compare to intact skin. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that UV-A can decrease bacterial proliferation and promote wound healing when coupled with NPWT.
Background: Ingrowing toenail is a common condition treated by general surgeons. Our aim was to analyze the effectiveness of wedge resection with phenolization in the surgical treatment of ingrowing toenails.
Methods: We retrospectively audited 100 patients who underwent wedge resection with phenolization for the treatment of ingrowing toenail between January 2000 and June 2004 by a single surgeon. We reviewed all charts and attempted to contact all patients for a telephone interview to assess patient satisfaction. Outcome measures were: 1) recurrence rate, 2) duration of analgesic use, 3) postoperative complications including wound infection, 4) time to return to normal activities, and 5) satisfaction with the procedure.
Results: A total of 168 wedge resection with phenolization procedures were performed on 100 patients. There was only one recurrence (0.6%). Two patients (2%) had wound infection and were treated with oral antibiotics. The average time for a single wedge resection with phenolization procedure was 7.3 minutes. The mean time to return to normal activities was 2.1 weeks. The patient response rate for the telephone interview was 60%. Most respondents (93.3%) were satisfied with the overall outcome.
Conclusions: Wedge resection with phenolization is a very effective mode of therapy in the surgical treatment of ingrowing toenail, with a very low recurrence rate and minimal postoperative morbidity. Wedge resection with phenolization should be considered as a good alternative technique in the treatment of ingrowing toenail. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(2): 118–122, 2008)
Fever is an active yet nonspecific response of the body to infections and other insults that cause immune cells to release cytokines, resulting in a brain prostanoid–mediated rise in body temperature. The causes, types, clinical management, and postoperative consequences of fever are reviewed in this article. Physicians use fever as a clinical sign for diagnoses and prognoses, but “fevers of unknown origin” continue to be problematic. Fevers that arise 1 or 2 days after surgery are usually due to stress and trauma, but later postoperative fevers often have more serious causes and consequences, such as wound infection. Fever is commonly encountered by podiatric physicians and surgeons, and certain procedures with the lower extremity are more likely to eventuate in fever. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(4): 281–290, 2010)
Background: Point-of-care testing for infection might help podiatric physicians optimize management of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). Glycologic’s proprietary GLYWD product has been developed to detect changes in a patient’s immunologic/inflammatory response related to wound infection. We evaluated how bacterial presence in DFUs relates to GLYWD test outcome.
Methods: This was a single-organization, prospective, controlled cohort study of clinical opinion versus GLYWD test result for DFU infection status and the appraisal of bacterial presence in the wounds and semiquantitative microbiology swab at weeks 0, 3, 6, 12, and 18. Spearman correlation, backward elimination linear regression, and principal components analysis were applied to determine which variables, including degree of bacterial load, are associated with a positive clinical opinion or GLYWD result for DFU infection.
Results: Forty-eight patients were enrolled, and 142 complete wound appraisals were conducted; a consensus outcome between clinical opinion and GLYWD result was achieved in most (n = 122, 86%). Clinical opinion significantly correlated with a higher bacterial load (Spearman rho = 0.38; P < .01), whereas GLYWD did not (rho = –0.010; P = .91). This observation was corroborated with logistic regression analysis, in which a previous observation of both clinical opinion and GLYWD associating with wound purulence and erythema was also confirmed.
Conclusions: Podiatric physicians are guided by hallmark signs of DFU infection, such as erythema and purulence; furthermore, we found that clinical opinion of infection correlates with increased bacterial load. GLYWD test results match clinical opinion in most cases, although the results obtained with this point-of-care method suggest that the degree of bacterial presence might not necessarily mean a higher chance of inducing an immunologic/inflammatory host response to said bacteria.
Background: A retrospective review of one surgeon’s practice was conducted to assess the prevalence of wound complications associated with acute and chronic rupture repair, peritenolysis, tenodesis, debridement, retrocalcaneal exostectomy/bursectomy, and management of calcific tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon.
Methods: We evaluated the incidence of infection and other wound complications, such as suture reactions, scar revision, hematoma, incisional neuromas, and granuloma formation.
Results: A total of 219 surgical cases were available for review (140 males and 70 females; mean ± SD age at the time of surgery, 46.5 ± 12.6 years; age range, 16–75 years). Seven patients experienced a wound infection, three had keloid formation, six had suture granulomas, and six had suture abscesses, for a total complication rate of 10.0%. Six patients had more than one complication; therefore, the percentage of patients with complications was 7.3%. There were no hematomas. Seven patients had additional surgery after their wound complications; some had simple granuloma excision, and one necessitated a flap. Patients with risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, smoking, and rheumatoid arthritis necessitating corticosteroid therapy were more likely to have a wound complication (Fisher exact test, P = .03).
Conclusions: Complications with Achilles tendon surgery may be unavoidable. Suture granulomas may appear in a delayed manner. Absorbable and nonabsorbable sutures can be implicated. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(2): 95–101, 2008)
Background: To evaluate complications and risk factors for nonunion in patients with diabetes after ankle fracture.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 139 patients with diabetes and ankle fractures followed for 1 year. We evaluated the incidence of wounds, infections, nonunions, Charcot’s arthropathy, and amputations. We determined Fracture severity (unimalleolar, bimalleolar, trimalleolar), nonunion, and Charcot’s arthropathy from radiographs. Nonunion was defined as a fracture that did not heal within 6 months of fracture. Analysis of variance was used to compare continuous variables, and χ2 tests to compare dichotomous variables, with α = 0.05. Logistic regression was performed with a binary variable representing nonunions as the dependent variable.
Results: Complications were common: nonunion (24.5%), Charcot’s arthropathy (7.9%), wounds (5.2%), wound site infection (17.3%), and leg amputation (2.2%). Patients with nonunions were more likely to be male (55.9% versus 29.5%; P = .005), have sensory neuropathy (76.5% versus 32.4%; P < .001), have end-stage renal disease (17.6% versus 2.9%; P < .001), and use insulin (73.5% versus 40.1%; P < .001), β-blockers (58.8% versus 39.0%; P = .049), and corticosteroids (26.5% versus 9.5%; P = .02). Among patients with nonunion, there was an increased risk of wounds (odds ratio [OR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–7.73), infection (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 0.72–5.61), amputation (OR, 7.74; 95% CI, 1.01–100.23), and long-term bracing (OR, 9.51; 95% CI, 3.8–23.8). In the logistic regression analysis, four factors were associated with fracture nonunion: dialysis (OR, 7.7; 95% CI, 1.7–35.2), insulin use (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.5–7.4), corticosteroid use (OR, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.4–18.0), and ankle fracture severity (bimalleolar or trimalleolar fracture) (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–5.4).
Conclusions: These results demonstrate risk factors for nonunions: dialysis, insulin use, and fracture severity after ankle fracture in patients with diabetes.
Background: Generally, posterior malleolar fragments are fixed either with percutaneous anteroposterior screws or through a posterolateral approach using screws and/or a buttress plate. Both surgical methods have some shortcomings, and the use of anteroposterior screws to fix osteoporotic posterior malleolar fractures carries a risk of failure.
Methods: Nine elderly patients (average age, 67 years) with posterior malleolar fractures were treated with transfibular Kirschner wire tension band fixation. According to the Lauge-Hansen classification, all fractures were of the supination-external rotation type. The operative duration, intraoperative blood loss, and wound healing outcome were recorded. During the follow-up period, clinical outcomes were measured using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score, and the occurrence of complications was observed.
Results: The patients were followed up for 12 to 18 months (mean, 15 months). The operative duration ranged from approximately 30 to 95 minutes, with an average of 70 minutes. Anatomical reduction was achieved in nine cases, and there were no complications, such as skin necrosis, wound infection, or skin sensory disturbance. There was one case of delayed wound healing caused by fat liquefaction, which was cured by a dressing change. The functional scores were excellent in four cases, good in four cases, fair in one case, and poor in zero cases. The rate of excellent and good results was 88.89% (eight of nine), with an average of 78.78 points.
Conclusion: Kirschner wire tension band fixation through a transfibular approach for the treatment of posterior malleolar fractures does not require a change in patient posture. It facilitates the reduction and internal fixation of the posterior malleolar fragment; furthermore, it is easier to remove internal fixation after fracture healing, which provides a new surgical method for elderly patients with posterior malleolus fracture. Thus, this has potential as a new surgical method for elderly patients with posterior malleolar fractures.