Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the radiographic
bone morphology of the ankle and the observed fracture type.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the patients who had visited our emergency department with ankle injuries between June 2012 and July 2018. All patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation. Patients were categorized in two groups based on the fracture patterns (groups 1 and 2). Group 1 consisted of isolated lateral malleolar fractures, while group 2 comprised bimalleolar fractures. Group 1 was further divided into two groups; namely group A and B based on their classification into Weber type B and C fractures, respectively. Four radiographic parameters were measured postoperatively by standing whole-leg anteroposterior view of the ankle; talocrural angle (TCA), medial malleolar relative length (MMRL), lateral malleolar relative length (LMRL), and the distance between the talar dome and distal fibula.
Results: One hundred and seventeen patients were included in group 1-A, 89 patients in group 1-B, and 168 patients in group 2. The values of TCA and MMRL were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1. Lateral malleolar length/medial malleolar length ratio was also significantly different between the two groups. However, there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of LMRL and the distance between the tip of the distal fibula and talar process. LMLR and MMRL values between groups A and B were not significantly different (p=0.402 and p=0.592, respectively). However, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of TCA and the distance between the tip of the distal fibula and talar process.
Conclusions: The talocrural angle, medial malleolar relative length, and lateral malleolar length/medial malleolar length were significantly higher in patients with bimalleolar fracture than in patients with isolated lateral malleolar fractures.
A 17-year-old boy presented with a totally dislocated talus and open bimalleolar ankle fracture dislocation. After thorough debridement and irrigation, the talus and bimalleolar fracture were reduced and fixed. At 21 months after surgery, he could walk using regular shoes without any aid but with moderate pain in the sinus tarsi during activities. No evidence of osteonecrosis or infection was seen in the last radiograph, except for a small degree of narrowing in the talonavicular joint. Reimplantation and fixation of pantalar dislocation seems to have an acceptable outcome.
Natural disasters, such as hurricanes and severe flooding, pose a threat of increased skin and soft-tissue infections, especially in the event of open fractures and wading through the waters. The purpose of this case study is to present a complex patient sustaining trauma resulting in an open bimalleolar fracture, multiple wounds, and exposure to a variety of water-borne pathogens during Hurricane Harvey in Houston, Texas, in 2017. He underwent multiple incision and drainage procedures, tissue cultures, and placement of antibiotic beads, with an application of external fixation to the left ankle. Several unique multidrug-resistant water-borne pathogens were identified, including Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens/putida, and Serratia marcescens. Once the soft-tissue envelope was restored and infection cleared, a full-thickness rotational flap with tissue expansion was performed. Ultimate reconstruction was delayed several weeks and final left ankle open reduction and internal fixation was performed following antimicrobial treatment with split-thickness skin autograft and wound vacuum-assisted closure application. The patient was discharged after 28 days with no further complications. In instances such as these, all caretakers coming into contact with the patient should be aware of the potential risks of the possible infectious diseases and management to optimize the recovery following hydrologic disasters.
Osteochondral lesions of the talus have been documented, reported, and studied since as early as the 19th century. The evolution of classification systems has allowed surgeons to better manage osseous lesions. Most osteochondral lesions of the talus have been categorized as anterolateral, posteromedial, or central with respect to the talar dome and its articulating surface. The complexity of the aforementioned lesions each present their own set of obstacles and, hence, management. Specifically, surgery on a central talar dome lesion is complicated by poor exposure and limited access, proving to be a challenging operation. Preoperative planning, including exhaustive imaging before any talar dome surgery, is imperative. We present a case study that involves the need for a distal tibial chevron (wedge) talus, with incorporation of a cadaveric allograft to fill the defect. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(2): 192–195, 2011)
Background: To evaluate complications and risk factors for nonunion in patients with diabetes after ankle fracture.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 139 patients with diabetes and ankle fractures followed for 1 year. We evaluated the incidence of wounds, infections, nonunions, Charcot’s arthropathy, and amputations. We determined Fracture severity (unimalleolar, bimalleolar, trimalleolar), nonunion, and Charcot’s arthropathy from radiographs. Nonunion was defined as a fracture that did not heal within 6 months of fracture. Analysis of variance was used to compare continuous variables, and χ2 tests to compare dichotomous variables, with α = 0.05. Logistic regression was performed with a binary variable representing nonunions as the dependent variable.
Results: Complications were common: nonunion (24.5%), Charcot’s arthropathy (7.9%), wounds (5.2%), wound site infection (17.3%), and leg amputation (2.2%). Patients with nonunions were more likely to be male (55.9% versus 29.5%; P = .005), have sensory neuropathy (76.5% versus 32.4%; P < .001), have end-stage renal disease (17.6% versus 2.9%; P < .001), and use insulin (73.5% versus 40.1%; P < .001), β-blockers (58.8% versus 39.0%; P = .049), and corticosteroids (26.5% versus 9.5%; P = .02). Among patients with nonunion, there was an increased risk of wounds (odds ratio [OR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–7.73), infection (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 0.72–5.61), amputation (OR, 7.74; 95% CI, 1.01–100.23), and long-term bracing (OR, 9.51; 95% CI, 3.8–23.8). In the logistic regression analysis, four factors were associated with fracture nonunion: dialysis (OR, 7.7; 95% CI, 1.7–35.2), insulin use (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.5–7.4), corticosteroid use (OR, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.4–18.0), and ankle fracture severity (bimalleolar or trimalleolar fracture) (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–5.4).
Conclusions: These results demonstrate risk factors for nonunions: dialysis, insulin use, and fracture severity after ankle fracture in patients with diabetes.
Malreduction of a distal fibular fracture can lead to degenerative changes in the ankle joint. Previous studies have shown that the selective use of various fibular reconstructive osteotomies may halt the progression of degenerative arthritis by restoring the normal tibiotalar contact area and decreasing the stresses on the articular cartilage. In this case report, we achieved alignment with restoration of the talocrural angle and Shenton's line of the ankle using a transfibular osteotomy and an allogeneic fresh-frozen femoral head graft to fill the resultant defect. The advantage of this procedure is twofold. First, fibular-lengthening procedures may potentially decrease the eventual need for joint-sacrificing procedures such as an arthrodesis or arthroplasty. Second, an allograft allows for larger deficit correction without concern for donor-site morbidity. To our knowledge, this is the first case report using a fresh-frozen femoral head allograft for a fibular-lengthening osteotomy in the podiatric medical literature. Further research with larger patient populations is needed to establish whether fresh-frozen femoral head allograft is a reliable graft option for fibular-lengthening procedures.
For minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) techniques applied to fractures of the lateral malleolus, there is no external guide for inserting the plate, determining the incision, and inserting the screws as used for fractures in other regions. With MIPPO, fluoroscopy exposure is unavoidable. The MIPPO technique is advantageous for patients; however, the unavoidable problem with this method for the surgical team is repeated exposure to fluoroscopy. To expose the surgical team to least radiation, we used a novel technique with an equal-sized plate as an external guide. We present the results of patients treated with this technique.
Patients with isolated lateral malleolar fracture who underwent MIPPO using an equal-sized anatomical lateral malleolar plate as an external guide were retrospectively investigated. VAS scores on postoperative day 1 and AOFAS scores at final evaluation were noted.
Twenty-six patients were included in the study. Mean ± SD follow-up was 42.46 ± 14.11 months. Mean ± SD VAS score on postoperative day 1 was 3.76 ± 2.58. On final evaluation, prominent implant was identified in two patients, with mean ± SD AOFAS score of 98.00 ± 2.17. No other complications were observed.
Using an equal-sized plate as external guide may ensure less use of fluoroscopy while determining the incisions. Until an external guide is produced commercially for minimally invasive fixation of lateral malleolar fractures, this method ensures determination of incisions and insertion of screws without requiring the use of fluoroscopy and may be reliably used for minimally invasive surgery.
Distal tibiofibular syndesmosis contributes to dynamic stability of the ankle joint and thereby affects gait cycle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the grade of syndesmosis injury on plantar pressure distribution and dynamic parameters of the foot.
Grade of syndesmosis injury was determined by preoperative plain radiographic evaluation, intraoperative hook test, or external rotation stress test under fluoroscopic examination, and two groups were created: group 1, patients with grade III syndesmosis injury (n = 17); and group 2, patients with grade II syndesmosis injury (n = 10). At the last visit, radiologic and clinical assessment using the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score was performed. Dynamic and stabilometric analysis was carried out at least 1 year after surgery.
The mean age of the patients was 48.9 years (range, 17–80 years), and the mean follow-up was 16 months (range, 12–24 months). No statistically significant difference was noted between two groups regarding Foot and Ankle Outcome Score. The comparison of stabilometric and dynamic analysis revealed no significant difference between grade II and grade III injuries (P > .05). However, comparison of the data of patients with grade III syndesmosis injury between injured and healthy feet showed a significant difference for dynamic maximum and mean pressures (P = .035 and P = .49, respectively).
Syndesmosis injury does not affect stance phase but affects the gait cycle by generating increased pressures on the uninjured foot and decreased pressures on the injured foot. With the help of pedobarography, processing suitable orthopedic insoles for the injured foot and interceptive measures for overloading of the normal foot may prevent later consequences of ankle trauma.
We sought first to determine the efficacy of lateral ankle fixation alone in maintenance of medial clear space and talar valgus in bimalleolar equivalent ankle fractures not receiving primary deltoid repair, and second to assess perceived outcomes via the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score. To our knowledge, no study has quantified the reduction of medial clear space and talar valgus in bimalleolar equivalent ankle fractures receiving lateral ankle fixation alone.
We compared preoperative, initial postoperative, and greater than 1-year follow-up radiographs of medial clear space and talar valgus in individuals who received lateral ankle fixation alone in bimalleolar equivalent ankle fractures. Subjective outcomes were measured via the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score.
Thirty-seven patients participated in the study and showed a statistically significant reduction of medial clear space and restoration of talar position, and maintenance with this fixation method during follow-up in patients with bimalleolar equivalent ankle fractures. Adjunctively, patients perceived their outcomes to be satisfactory, as demonstrated by the results of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score.
We aimed to assess the efficacy of lateral ankle fixation in the maintenance of medial clear space and talar valgus reduction at midterm follow-up. Although some authors contend that primary deltoid repair in bimalleolar equivalent ankle fractures is warranted, these midterm study results suggest that isolated lateral ankle fixation is adequate for medial ankle stabilization in bimalleolar equivalent fractures, and thus primary deltoid repair is not indicated.