BACKGROUND: Multiple organizations have issued guidelines to address the prevention, diagnosis and management of diabetic foot ulcers. These guidelines are based on evidence review and expert opinion. <p>METHODS: Literature review was conducted and guidelines were reviewed to identify consensus (or lack thereof) on the nature of these recommendations, the strength of the recommendations and the level of evidence.</p> <p>RESULTS: Most guidelines were not based on highest level of evidence (randomized controlled trials). A listing of recommendations for prevention, diagnosis and management was created with evidence basis for all recommendations.</p> <p>CONCLUSIONS: Areas for future research were identified among recommendations based on minimal evidence, areas of controversy, or in areas of clinical care without recommendations.</p>
Intralesional epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been available as a medication in Turkey since 2012. We present the results of our experience using intralesional EGF in Turkey for patients with diabetic foot wounds.
A total of 174 patients from 25 Turkish medical centers were evaluated for this retrospective study. We recorded the data on enrolled individuals on custom-designed patient follow-up forms. Patients received intralesional injections of 75 μg of EGF three times per week and were monitored daily for adverse reactions to treatment. Patients were followed up for varying periods after termination of EGF treatments.
Median treatment duration was 4 weeks, and median frequency of EGF administration was 12 doses. Complete response (granulation tissue >75% or wound closure) was observed in 116 patients (66.7%). Wounds closed with only EGF administration in 81 patients (46.6%) and in conjunction with various surgical interventions after EGF administration in 65 patients (37.3%). Overall, 146 of the wounds (83.9%) were closed at the end of therapy. Five patients (2.9%) required major amputation. Adverse effects were reported in 97 patients (55.7%).
In patients with diabetic foot ulcer who received standard care, additional intralesional EGF application after infection control provided high healing rates with low amputation rates.
Painful peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus that can affect almost every tissue of the body. In the absence of a curative therapy for this disorder, pharmacologic or nonpharmacologic tools, or a combination of both, can be used to provide relief of symptoms. This article reviews medications currently used to manage painful diabetic neuropathy. The pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy is described as a basis for understanding medication selection. The literature describing the pharmacologic properties of medications used to treat painful diabetic neuropathy is also reviewed. Comparisons of medication dosages, frequencies, and adverse effects are offered to help with selection of the most appropriate agent for each individual patient. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(5): 394–401, 2007)
Diabetic foot complications are costly and often recurrent. The use of diabetic footwear has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of diabetic foot ulcerations. For diabetic footwear to be most effective, it must be worn at least 60% of the time. All reported rates of compliance fall well short of this level. The style and appearance of the shoe have been commonly blamed for this poor compliance. This study evaluates patients’ motivations and perceptions regarding diabetic footwear. A patient’s decision to use diabetic footwear is based on the perceived value of the shoe and not on the patient’s previous history of foot complications or the aesthetics of diabetic footwear. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(6): 485-491, 2003)
In this retrospective review, 19 diabetic patients with significant lower-extremity pathology were assessed to determine the success of limb salvage in cases of varying complexity. The patients were either scheduled or at risk for below-the-knee amputation before intervention. After the limb-salvage procedure, patients were followed for 4 months to 9 years. Eighteen patients went on to have successful procedures, avoiding below-the-knee amputation; one patient had an above-the-knee amputation. The results demonstrate the benefits of an aggressive team approach with limb salvage as a goal. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(8): 457-462, 2002)
Patients with diabetic neuropathy are subject to ulcerations that may be complicated by infection and gangrene, with subsequent risk of amputation. It is the job of the foot specialist to identify and manage these problems early to avoid the unfortunate complication of amputation regardless of the presenting condition of the patient’s limb. We shed light on the hypothesis that suggests that infection and gangrene in a diabetic patient aggravate the degree of ischemia (microvascular, macrovascular, or both) already present enough to endanger the viability of the surrounding tissues unless urgent drainage with decompression and debridement of the necrotic sloughs is performed, with consequent reduction of tissue pressure and improvement in circulation to the area. We present cases with severe infections leading to gangrene and ischemia, which were improved following surgical management with consequent improvement in tissue viability. In these cases, we demonstrate that immediate treatment of the wound despite the delayed presentation of the patients resulted in limb salvage with much less soft-tissue loss than expected before treatment. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(5): 454–458, 2009)
In 2007, the treatment of diabetes and its complications in the United States generated at least $116 billion in direct costs; at least 33% of these costs were linked to the treatment of foot ulcers. Although the team approach to diabetic foot problems is effective in preventing lower-extremity amputations, the costs associated with implementing a diabetic-foot–care team are not well understood. An analysis of these costs provides the basis for this report.
Diabetic foot problems impose a major economic burden, and costs increase disproportionately to the severity of the condition. Compared with diabetic patients without foot ulcers, the cost of care for those with foot ulcers is 5.4 times higher in the year after the first ulcer episode and 2.8 times higher in the second year. Costs for treating the highest-grade ulcers are 8 times higher than are those for treating low-grade ulcers. Patients with diabetic foot ulcers require more frequent emergency department visits and are more commonly admitted to the hospital, requiring longer lengths of stay. Implementation of the team approach to manage diabetic foot ulcers in a given region or health-care system has been reported to reduce long-term amputation rates 62% to 82%. Limb salvage efforts may include aggressive therapy such as revascularization procedures and advanced wound-healing modalities. Although these procedures are costly, the team approach gradually leads to improved screening and prevention programs and earlier interventions and, thus, seems to reduce long-term costs.
To date, aggressive limb preservation management for patients with diabetic foot ulcers has not usually been paired with adequate reimbursement. It is essential to direct efforts in patient-caregiver education to allow early recognition and management of all diabetic foot problems and to build integrated pathways of care that facilitate timely access to limb salvage procedures. Increasing evidence suggests that the costs of implementing diabetic foot teams can be offset in the long term by improved access to care and reductions in foot complications and amputation rates. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(5): 335–341, 2010)
The purpose of this article is to present reference guidelines to assist clinicians when treating diabetic patients with foot wounds. Diabetic patients with limb-threatening foot ulcers often have multiple coexisting medical conditions that frequently become impediments to the resolution of foot wounds. Each foot wound is unique and its etiology is multifactorial; therefore, each foot wound should be managed differently. The treatment algorithm presented in this article is divided into three categories: Algorithm I describes the treatment of septic foot wounds, which may be considered true podiatric surgical emergencies; Algorithm II describes the treatment of ischemic foot ulcers or gangrene with or without underlying osteomyelitis; and Algorithm III describes the treatment of neuropathic foot ulcers with or without underlying osteomyelitis. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(6): 336-349, 2002)
Background: The diabetic foot is one of the main complications of diabetes mellitus, with a high risk of minor or major amputation. The preclinical foot lesions of patients without foot complaints were compared with healthy controls and analyzed.
Methods: This study was conducted with 89 diabetic patients from an endocrinology clinic and 35 nondiabetic control patients. The patients were asked about the presence, types, and durations of pedal complaints; acquired and congenital foot deformities; and atrophy. Patient gaits were inspected for any swelling; skin and nail changes were also recorded. Ranges of articular motion, deformities, crepitations, and any painful perceptions were noted.
Results: The differences between groups were significant for sensorial defects, joint changes of the foot, nail abnormalities, and neuropathic changes.
Conclusions: Every patient with an established diagnosis of diabetes can be considered a potential sufferer of diabetic foot for whom medical therapy and foot protection programs are indicated. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(2): 114–120, 2009)
Although many antimicrobial agents display good in vitro activity against the pathogens frequently implicated in diabetic foot infections, effective treatment can be complicated by reduced tissue penetration in this population secondary to peripheral arterial disease and emerging antimicrobial resistance, which can result in clinical failure. Improved characterization of antibiotic tissue pharmacokinetics and penetration ratios in diabetic foot infections is needed. Microdialysis offers advantages over the skin blister and tissue homogenate studies historically used to define antibiotic penetration in skin and soft-tissue infections by defining antibiotic penetration into the interstitial fluid over the entire concentration versus time profile. However, only a select number of agents currently recommended for treating diabetic foot infections have been evaluated using these methods, which are described herein. Better characterization of the tissue penetration of antibiotic agents is needed for the development of methods for maximizing the pharmacodynamic profile of these agents to ultimately improve treatment outcomes for patients with diabetic foot infections.