Background: It’s important to determine the plantar pressure distribution of school children by applying static and dynamic foot analyses using a pedobarography device. However, it’s difficult to obtain clear interpretations from results which can be explained by a large number of plantar pressure variables. The aim of this study is to use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to predict main components for reducing the size of big data sets, provide a practical overview and minimize information loss on the subject of plantar pressure assessment in youths.
Methods: In total, 112 school children were included in the current study (average age 10.58 ± 1.27 years, body mass index 18.86 ± 4.33 kg / m2). During the research, a Sensor Medica Freemed pedobarography device was used to obtain plantar pressure data. Each foot was divided into six anatomical regions and evaluated. Global and regional plantar pressure distribution, load and surface areas, pressure time integrals, weight ratios and geometric foot properties were calculated.
Results: PCA yielded ten principal component (PC) that together account for 81.88% of the variation in the data set and represent new and distinct patterns. Thus, 137 variables affecting the subject were reduced to ten components.
Conclusions: Static and dynamic plantar pressure distribution, which is affected by many variables, can be reduced to ten components by PCA, making the research results more concise and understandable.
Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT) is a rheumatologic condition characterized by generalized joint hypermobility and musculoskeletal and nonmusculoskeletal findings related to congenital laxity of connective tissue. Because foot pain and other foot problems are reported to make daily life problematic to manage for individuals with JHS/EDS-HT, and thanks to the availability of modern technology, the aim of the present study was to quantitatively characterize foot type in individuals with JHS/EDS-HT during upright standing.
Forty feet of 20 women with JHS/EDS-HT (mean ± SD age, 36.03 ± 14.01 years) were assessed clinically and with a pressure-sensitive mat during upright standing.
Forty-five percent of feet had a high arch (pes cavus), 27.5% had a normal arch, and 27.5% had a low arch (pes planus or flatfoot).
From a clinical perspective, the characterization of foot type in JHS/EDS-HT is important to identify, develop, and enhance the rehabilitative options. An understanding of the relationship between pes cavus and foot pain in these patients could, in fact, improve the clinical management of these patients.
Background: It is important to determine the plantar pressure distribution of schoolchildren by applying static and dynamic foot analyses using a pedobarography device. However, it is difficult to obtain clear interpretations from results that can be explained by a large number of plantar pressure variables. The aim of this study was to use principal component analysis (PCA) to predict the main components for reducing the size of big data sets, provide a practical overview, and minimize information loss on the subject of plantar pressure assessment in youths.
Methods: In total, 112 schoolchildren were included in the study (mean ± SD: age, 10.58 ± 1.27 years; body mass index, 18.86 ± 4.33). During the research, a pedobarography device was used to obtain plantar pressure data. Each foot was divided into six anatomical regions and evaluated. Global and regional plantar pressure distributions, load and surface areas, pressure-time integrals, weight ratios, and geometric foot properties were calculated.
Results: The PCA yielded ten principal components that together account for 81.88% of the variation in the data set and represent new and distinct patterns. Thus, 137 variables affecting the subject were reduced to ten components.
Conclusions: The numerous variables that affect static and dynamic plantar pressure distributions can be reduced to ten components by PCA, making the research results more concise and understandable.
For several years, confectioned or customized interdigital silicone orthoses have been used to treat toe malformations; however, long-term clinical and biomechanical studies are missing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical effects of these orthoses and their clinical acceptance.
In 2008, 46 patients (30 women and 16 men; average age, 56.8 years) received interdigital silicone orthoses. All of the patients were included in the biomechanical and clinical study. Compliance and acceptance were measured by the Muenster shoe and foot questionnaire, which includes 13 items on pain, activities of daily living, satisfaction, and activity. Mean follow-up was 18 months. Ten feet (eight patients) were chosen by random and underwent pedobarography. One forefoot sensor and two single sensors were attached between the skin and the orthosis. Measurements were performed in-shoe three times with and without the orthosis without removal of the sensors.
Forty-four of the 46 patients (95.7%) were included. At the 18-month investigation, 19 patients no longer used their orthoses, most commonly because of pain and failure of the material. Twenty-two patients regularly used their orthoses (8 h/d on average). In-shoe peak pressure lowered significantly with orthosis use (P < .04). Patients who used the orthoses were mostly satisfied.
Interdigital silicone orthoses reduce in-shoe peak pressure. Patient satisfaction was good. The durability of the material has to be optimized, and manufacturing remains difficult. The effect on ulcer reduction must be evaluated in a large prospective study.
Distal tibiofibular syndesmosis contributes to dynamic stability of the ankle joint and thereby affects gait cycle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the grade of syndesmosis injury on plantar pressure distribution and dynamic parameters of the foot.
Grade of syndesmosis injury was determined by preoperative plain radiographic evaluation, intraoperative hook test, or external rotation stress test under fluoroscopic examination, and two groups were created: group 1, patients with grade III syndesmosis injury (n = 17); and group 2, patients with grade II syndesmosis injury (n = 10). At the last visit, radiologic and clinical assessment using the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score was performed. Dynamic and stabilometric analysis was carried out at least 1 year after surgery.
The mean age of the patients was 48.9 years (range, 17–80 years), and the mean follow-up was 16 months (range, 12–24 months). No statistically significant difference was noted between two groups regarding Foot and Ankle Outcome Score. The comparison of stabilometric and dynamic analysis revealed no significant difference between grade II and grade III injuries (P > .05). However, comparison of the data of patients with grade III syndesmosis injury between injured and healthy feet showed a significant difference for dynamic maximum and mean pressures (P = .035 and P = .49, respectively).
Syndesmosis injury does not affect stance phase but affects the gait cycle by generating increased pressures on the uninjured foot and decreased pressures on the injured foot. With the help of pedobarography, processing suitable orthopedic insoles for the injured foot and interceptive measures for overloading of the normal foot may prevent later consequences of ankle trauma.
Many indirect clinical techniques have been developed to assess foot posture; however, there is relatively little research investigating the relationships among these techniques. We investigated the relationships among the most commonly used clinical measures of foot posture—Foot Posture Index-6 (FPI-6), navicular drop (NDP), navicular drift (NDT), and static and dynamic arch indices (SAI and DAI)—in individuals with normal foot posture and those with pronated foot.
Sixty-three individuals with FPI-6 scores of 0 to 12 were included. A digital caliper was used to measure NDP and NDT; SAI and DAI were measured by electronic pedobarography. Assessments were applied on the dominant foot. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the relationships among measures. Participants were classified into two groups, pronated foot (n = 33) and normal foot posture (n = 30), based on FPI-6 scores, providing a multisegmental and multiplanar assessment. The independent-samples t test was used to compare groups regarding NDP, NDT, SAI, and DAI.
We found a high correlation between NDP and FPI-6 (r = 0.754) and between NDP and NDT (r = 0.778) (all P < .001). A moderate correlation was found between NDT and FPI-6 (r = 0.599) and between DAI and SAI (r = 0.519) (all P < .001). A negligible correlation was found between NDP and DAI (r = 0.268; P = .033). Furthermore, NDP, NDT, and DAI values were higher in individuals with pronated foot compared with those with normal posture (P < .001 for NDP and NDT; P = .022 for DAI), whereas SAI values were not (P = .837).
These results suggest that there are moderate-to-strong relationships among FPI-6, NDP, and NDT and between SAI and DAI. The NDP, NDT, and DAI are suitable for the classification of foot posture based on FPI-6 scores. This study can guide clinicians and researchers to associate the foot posture measures with each other.
Background: A case-control study was conducted to compare static plantar pressures and distribution of body weight across the two lower limbs, as well as the prevalence of gastrocnemius soleus equinus, in children with and without calcaneal apophysitis (Sever’s disease).
Methods: The participants were 54 boys enrolled in a soccer academy, of which eight were lost to follow-up. Twenty-two boys with unilateral Sever’s disease comprised the Sever’s disease group and 24 healthy boys constituted a control group. Plantar pressure data were collected using pedobarography, and gastrocnemius soleus equinus was assessed.
Results: Peak pressure and percentage of body weight supported were significantly higher in the symptomatic feet of the Sever’s disease group than in the asymptomatic feet of the Sever’s disease group and the control group. Every child in the Sever’s disease group had bilateral gastrocnemius equinus, while nearly all children in the control group had no equinus.
Conclusions: High plantar foot pressures are associated with Sever’s disease, although it is unclear whether they are a predisposing factor or a result of the condition. Gastrocnemius equinus may be a predisposing factor for Sever’s disease. Further research is needed to identify other factors involved in the disease and to better understand the factors that contribute to abnormal distribution of body weight in the lower limbs. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(1): 17–24, 2011)
We investigated the role of first metatarsal head shape in the etiology of hallux valgus. By pedobarographic analysis, we evaluated whether first metatarsal head shape causes an alteration in plantar pressure values that would result in metatarsalgia.
Referrals to our clinic for metatarsalgia, plantar fasciitis, and calcaneal spur were scanned retrospectively. Patients with severe hallux valgus, pes planus, gastrocnemius stiffness, generalized joint laxity, neuromuscular disease, or a history of lower-extremity orthopedic surgery were excluded. Sixty-two patients with plantar pressure assessment and radiographic evaluation were included. These patients were invited for reassessment after 10 years. Feet were divided into three groups by metatarsal head shape: round, square, and chevron. On anteroposterior radiographs, the hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angles, relative first metatarsal length, lateral sesamoid subluxation, and presence of bipartite sesamoid were noted. Plantar pressure was assessed with pedobarography.
Feet with round-shaped first metatarsal heads had a statistically significantly greater progression in hallux valgus angle than the other shapes. Plantar pressures under the first, second and third, and fourth and fifth metatarsals increased with time. This can explain the mechanism of transfer metatarsalgia and painful callosities under the first metatarsal in hallux valgus. There was no correlation between hallux valgus angle, relative metatarsal length, and lateral sesamoid subluxation.
We found a strong relation between round-shaped first metatarsal head and hallux valgus angle progression. No patients had a risk factor responsible for hallux valgus. In other words, this study gives approximately 10-year natural history results in nearly normal feet.
Although there are several different concepts of hindfoot relief footwear, there are no studies on the extent of pressure reduction to be achieved by this footwear. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the reduction in plantar pressure to be achieved with two different hindfoot relief shoes.
Ten healthy volunteers performed three trials at a self-selected speed. Peak pressure values in mass-produced shoes (normal gait) were considered as 100% and were compared with measurements in two differently designed hindfoot relief shoes. Foot portions were defined as heel (0%–15% of total insole length), hindfoot (16%–30%), midfoot (31%–60%), and forefoot (61%–100%).
Heel and hindfoot peak pressures were significantly reduced in both shoes compared with normal gait (P < .05), but the extent of peak pressure reduction under the heel and hindfoot varied significantly between the tested shoes. Midfoot peak pressure was not significantly reduced in tested shoes compared with baseline (P > .05) but differed significantly between the two shoes. Forefoot peak pressure was significantly reduced with one of the tested shoes (to a median 73% baseline; P = .004) but not with the other (median, 88% baseline).
Hindfoot relief shoes leave a considerable amount of peak pressure, predominantly under the hindfoot. The extent of peak pressure reduction for the heel and the hindfoot varies between different hindfoot relief shoes. Depending on the affected foot area, the kind of hindfoot relief shoe should be carefully chosen.
No detailed comparative studies have been performed regarding plantar pressure changes between proximal dome and distal chevron osteotomies. This study aimed to compare radiographic and plantar pressure changes after distal chevron and proximal dome osteotomies and to investigate the effect of radiographic and plantar pressure changes on clinical outcomes.
This study included 26 and 22 patients who underwent distal chevron and proximal dome osteotomies, respectively. Visual analog scale (VAS) and American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) forefoot scores were used to evaluate pain and functional outcomes. Hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, talar–first metatarsal angle, and calcaneal inclination angle were measured in the evaluation of radiographic outcomes. Preoperative and postoperative plantar pressure changes were evaluated.
There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in age, body mass index, or AOFAS forefoot and VAS scores. In the proximal dome group, the pressure measurement showed significant lateralization of the maximal anterior pressure point in the forefoot (P < .001). In addition, the postoperative calcaneal inclination angle was significantly lower (P = .004) and the talar–first metatarsal angle was significantly higher (P < .001) in the proximal dome group. Postoperative transfer metatarsalgia was observed in one patient (3.8%) in the distal chevron group and five (22.7%) in the proximal dome group (P < .05).
Proximal dome osteotomy led to more lateralization of the maximum anterior pressure point, decreased calcaneal inclination angle and first metatarsal elevation, and related higher transfer metatarsalgia.