This study examined the effect of instructional technology availability on the performance of students enrolled in a medical physiology course at a podiatric medical school.
Multiple linear regression analysis was used to predict student overall test performance based on instructional technology, Medical College Admission Test score, undergraduate grade point average, and class absence.
The availability of instructional technology was associated with a small decline in mean test performance and a small increase in class absence. Class absence had a negative effect on test performance only when the technology was available. Total Medical College Admission Test score and grade point average were positively correlated with performance.
Instructional technology did not enhance absentee student course performance and, indeed, hurt it. Its use as a means of providing access to additional lecture material needs to be reevaluated. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(6): 471–476, 2012)
Background: Student self-assessment is viewed as an important tool in medical education. We sought to identify the relationship between student academic performance and third-year clinical performance self-assessment. No such study exists in podiatric medical education.
Methods: Third-year podiatric medical students from the classes of 2012 through 2014 completed a self-assessment of their performance for each of five broad clinical podiatric medical domains (Professionalism, Medicine, Radiology, Surgery, and Biomechanics/Orthopedics). The assessment was completed after students finished the first 12 weeks of their third-year clinical rotations (PRE) and a second time at the conclusion of the third year (POST). The mean self-assessment score for PRE and POST surveys for all combined domains was determined for each student. This mean was compared with the student's 3-year cumulative grade point average (GPA). Students' clinical experiences for the year were essentially identical.
Results: No statistically significant correlation was identified between cumulative GPA and the PRE and POST clinical self-assessments or with the change between PRE and POST assessments based on the Pearson correlation test for each class separately or on the pooled data.
Conclusions: Published studies in allopathic medical education have shown that students with lower GPAs tend to rate their clinical performance higher in initial clinical performance self-assessment. Our results show that student academic performance was not correlated with clinical performance self-assessment. These findings may be due to the explicit description of successful clinical competency completion, the orientation students receive before the start of clinical training, and the continuous feedback received from clinical preceptors.
Background: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether normal, flat, or high-arched feet corresponded to better performance of certain motor tests in children.
Methods: One hundred eighty-seven children (mean ± SD age, 11.15 ± 1.24 years) were recruited and divided into three groups: 96 with normal feet, 54 with high-arched feet, and 37 with low-arched feet. Nine motor trials were selected to assess motor performance: standing long jump, standing triple jump from each foot, standing vertical jump, shuttle run 10 × 5 m, standing-start 20-m sprint, static balance, dynamic balance on a beam of an inverted gym bench, and agility circuit.
Results: There were no significant differences in the trial results between groups, although in eight of the nine trials participants in the high-arched group tended to perform better. Boys performed better than girls in all of the trials except those of balance.
Conclusions: These results suggest that children with a certain foot type did not achieve better motor performance in the nine trials tested.
This study was performed to determine whether a relationship exists regarding academic achievement between years 1 and 2 of podiatric medical education at Des Moines University. Furthermore, this study evaluates the relationship between academic performance in the first 2 years and clinical performance in year 3.
The academic records of four classes (2007–2010, N = 164) were examined for grade point averages and clinical performance scores using pairwise Pearson product moment correlations.
Significant high correlations existed in academic performance scores between year 1 and year 2 for individual classes and pooled data. Significant low to moderate correlations were found between academic performance and clinical performance scores for individual classes and pooled data.
These results help define the relationship between student academic and clinical performance for podiatric medicine students at Des Moines University and suggest that nonacademic characteristics may play a pivotal role in clinical abilities. These characteristics need to be further identified and developed in the academic curriculum. There may be attributes identified that also benefit the admissions process. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(4): 314-318, 2012)
Background: Podiatric and osteopathic medical students at Des Moines University take the same basic science medical curriculum. The first course students complete is medical biochemistry. The final common course is the second-year medical pharmacology course. Attrition typically occurs between these academic offerings. We sought to compare admissions data, retention rates, and academic performance between these two groups of medical students for the classes of 2008 to 2011.
Methods: Average admission scores, performance scores for the biochemistry and medical pharmacology courses, and retention rates for the 2008 to 2011 classes were obtained from the registrar and enrollment offices. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the scores of the two cohorts. Linear regression was used to identify changes across time.
Results: The DO students showed significantly better performance than the DPM students in matriculating overall and science grade point averages, total Medical College Admissions Test scores, retention rates, and the medical biochemistry course (P < .01). There was no difference in the performance of the student groups in the medical pharmacology course. The DPM student scores across the four classes increased for both academic courses, whereas the DO student scores remained at the same level for medical biochemistry, at a rate of 0.74% per year (R2 = 0.50), and pharmacology, at a rate of 0.90% per year (R2 = 0.49).
Conclusions: Admissions data and initial academic performance of osteopathic medical students were higher than those of podiatric medical students. Once attrition occurred in year 1, the difference in academic performance between these groups of students was no longer statistically significant, and students in both medical programs at that time in the curriculum are equally academically qualified. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(4): 276–280, 2010)
Background: Perceived acceptability of barefoot use has largely been ignored in the literature despite its importance to long-term implementation and behaviour change. This study aimed to compare acceptability of undertaking weight bearing physical activities in regular running shoes versus barefoot in habitually shod individuals.
Methods: Healthy young men and women were recruited from the Gold Coast. Participants completed six activities (lunges, walking, jogging, sidestep, vertical jump and hop) in shod and barefoot conditions then answered questions pertaining to level and source of discomfort, ease of performance, and acceptability. Indices of bone quality were measured from the dominant calcaneus by quantitative ultrasound (QUS).
Results: Seventeen healthy male (n = 8) and female (n = 9) university students participated in the study [mean ± standard deviation, age 26.59 ± 7.26 years, body mass index [BMI] 23.08 ± 3.58 kg/m2]. Men were taller, heavier and had higher broadband ultrasound attention (BUA) than women (p<0.05). For “no” discomfort, “very easy” ease of performance and a “good amount” or “very good amount” of acceptability, shod conditions demonstrated response rates of 87.25%, 55.88% and 72.55% respectively. Barefoot conditions demonstrated rates of 62.75%, 39.22% and 48.03% for the same responses, respectively, and reported more ball of foot, forefoot, heel and plantar skin locations as sources of discomfort during activity than the shod condition. The group vertical jump height was higher barefoot than shod (44.88 ± 8.44 cm and 43.25 ± 8.76 cm respectively; p<0.05), but no difference was seen for the hop. Males jumped and hopped higher than females under both footwear conditions (p<0.05).
Conclusions: Participants initiating barefoot weight bearing exercise may experience slightly greater discomfort and less ease of performance in the initial transition from the shod condition, however, may perform better in vertical jump. Whether those differences in experience persist over the long term will require longitudinal studies.
This study was performed to determine the relationship between undergraduate academic performance and total Medical College Admission Test score and academic performance in the podiatric medical program at Des Moines University. The allopathic and osteopathic medical professions have published educational research examining this relationship. To our knowledge, no such educational research has been published for podiatric medical education.
The undergraduate cumulative and science grade point averages and total Medical College Admission Test scores of four podiatric medical classes (2007–2010, N = 169) were compared with their academic performance in the first 2 years of podiatric medical school using pairwise Pearson product moment correlations and multiple regression analysis.
Significant low to moderate positive correlations were identified between undergraduate cumulative and science grade point averages and student academic performance in years 1 and 2 of podiatric medical school for each of the four classes (except one) and the pooled data. There was no significant correlation between Medical College Admission Test score and academic performance in years 1 and 2 (except one) and the pooled data.
These results identify undergraduate cumulative grade point average as the strongest cognitive admissions variable in predicting academic performance in the podiatric medicine program at Des Moines University, followed by undergraduate science grade point average. These results also suggest limitations of the total Medical College Admission Test score in predicting academic performance. Information from this study can be used in the admissions process and to monitor student progress. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(6): 446–450, 2012)
Background: This pilot study explores the influence of preadmission data on podiatric medical school performance, specifically, the role of undergraduate institutional selectivity. This type of study has never been described in the podiatric medical education literature. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of preadmission data on 459 students from the graduating classes of 2000 to 2009 at the College of Podiatric Medicine and Surgery at Des Moines University.
Methods: Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the relationship between performance during the first year of podiatric medical school and a set of independent variables that represent certain preadmission student characteristics. Student demographic characteristics, such as race/ethnicity and sex, were also included in the regression analysis as control variables.
Results: The regression analysis revealed that ethnic origin, undergraduate grade point average, Medical College Admission Test biological science and verbal reasoning scores, and institutional selectivity together had a significant effect on the dependent variable (F = 18.3; P < .001). The variance for the independent variable/constant variables was 32%. Almost twice as many students were dismissed or withdrew in poor academic standing who attended undergraduate institutions in the lowest selectivity category.
Conclusions: This analysis revealed that in the College of Podiatric Medicine and Surgery, some preadmission variables, such as institutional selectivity, undergraduate grade point average, ethnic origin, and Medical College Admission Test verbal reasoning and biological science scores, are statistically significant in predicting first-year podiatric medical school grade point average. The selectivity of a student’s undergraduate institution should be considered when screening potential podiatric medical school applicants. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(6): 479–486, 2010)
Neuropathologic changes may occur in the nervous system due to long-term substance use, leading to functional disability with altering of balance. We know little about substance-related mechanisms that can cause movement disorders. This study investigated the effects of plantar foot sensation and balance on physical performance as an effect of substance use in detoxified patients.
Twenty-three users of cannabis, volatile agents, or narcotic/stimulant agents alone or in combination for at least 1 year (mean age, 27.6 years) and 20 healthy volunteers (mean age, 24.6 years) were included. Participant evaluations were implemented immediately after the detoxification process with psychiatrist approval. Depression, state-trait anxiety, and fear of movement levels were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, respectively. Plantar foot sensations were evaluated with light touch, two-point discrimination, and vibration examinations. Balance was assessed with balance software and a balance board and force platform. Balance path, balance path distance, and center of pressure were recorded. Physical performance was evaluated with the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test in the final step.
There was a significant difference in two-point discrimination of patients versus controls (P < .05). Significant differences were also found in balance values, particularly in the sagittal direction (P < .05). TUG test results of patients compared with controls showed a negative influence on physical function (P < .05).
Detailed examination should be performed to understand movement disorders in substance users. Herein, substance users had impaired two-point discrimination and sagittal balance reciprocally. Thus, customized physiotherapy approaches to substance users should be considered to improve their movement disorders.
Background: Direct assessment of health professional student performance of clinical skills can be accurately performed in the standardized performance assessment laboratory (SPAL), typically by health professional faculty. However, owing to time and economic considerations, nonmedical individuals have been specially trained to perform the same function (standardized patients [SPs]). This study compared the assessment scores of the history and physical examination components of a SPAL designed for second-year podiatric medical students at Des Moines University (DMU) by a podiatry medical faculty member and SPs.
Methods: A total of 101 students from the classes of 2015 and 2016 were evaluated in 2013 and 2014 by 11 to 13 SPs from the DMU SPAL program. The video recordings of these 101 students were then evaluated by one faculty member from the College of Podiatric Medicine and Surgery at DMU.
Results: The Pearson correlation coefficient for each class showed a strong linear relationship between SP and faculty assessment scores. The associations between SP and faculty assessment scores in the history, physical examination, and combined history and physical examination components for the 2016 class (0.706, 0.925, and 0.911, respectively) were found to be stronger than those for the 2015 class (0.697, 0.791, and 0.791, respectively).
Conclusions: This study indicated that there are strong associations between the assessment scores of trained SPs and faculty for the history, physical examination, and combined history and physical examination components of second-year SPAL activity for podiatric medical students.