Background: Perceived acceptability of barefoot use has largely been ignored in the literature despite its importance to long-term implementation and behaviour change. This study aimed to compare acceptability of undertaking weight bearing physical activities in regular running shoes versus barefoot in habitually shod individuals.
Methods: Healthy young men and women were recruited from the Gold Coast. Participants completed six activities (lunges, walking, jogging, sidestep, vertical jump and hop) in shod and barefoot conditions then answered questions pertaining to level and source of discomfort, ease of performance, and acceptability. Indices of bone quality were measured from the dominant calcaneus by quantitative ultrasound (QUS).
Results: Seventeen healthy male (n = 8) and female (n = 9) university students participated in the study [mean ± standard deviation, age 26.59 ± 7.26 years, body mass index [BMI] 23.08 ± 3.58 kg/m2]. Men were taller, heavier and had higher broadband ultrasound attention (BUA) than women (p<0.05). For “no” discomfort, “very easy” ease of performance and a “good amount” or “very good amount” of acceptability, shod conditions demonstrated response rates of 87.25%, 55.88% and 72.55% respectively. Barefoot conditions demonstrated rates of 62.75%, 39.22% and 48.03% for the same responses, respectively, and reported more ball of foot, forefoot, heel and plantar skin locations as sources of discomfort during activity than the shod condition. The group vertical jump height was higher barefoot than shod (44.88 ± 8.44 cm and 43.25 ± 8.76 cm respectively; p<0.05), but no difference was seen for the hop. Males jumped and hopped higher than females under both footwear conditions (p<0.05).
Conclusions: Participants initiating barefoot weight bearing exercise may experience slightly greater discomfort and less ease of performance in the initial transition from the shod condition, however, may perform better in vertical jump. Whether those differences in experience persist over the long term will require longitudinal studies.
Background: Perceived acceptability of barefoot use has largely been ignored in the literature despite its importance to long-term implementation and behavior change. This study aimed to compare the acceptability of undertaking weightbearing physical activities in regular running shoes versus barefoot in habitually shod individuals.
Methods: Healthy young men and women were recruited from the Gold Coast. Participants completed six activities (ie, lunges, walking, jogging, sidestep, vertical jump, and hop) in shod and barefoot conditions then answered questions pertaining to level and source of discomfort, ease of performance, and acceptability. Indices of bone quality were measured from their dominant calcaneus by quantitative ultrasound.
Results: Seventeen healthy male (n = 8) and female (n = 9) university students participated in the study (age, 26.59 ± 7.26 years; body mass index, 23.08 ± 3.58 kg/m2). Men were taller, heavier, and had higher broadband ultrasound attenuation than women (P < .05). For “no” discomfort, “very easy” ease of performance, and a “good amount” or “very good amount” of acceptability, the shod condition demonstrated response rates of 87.25%, 55.88%, and 72.55%, respectively. The barefoot condition demonstrated rates of those responses of 62.75%, 39.22%, and 48.03%, respectively, and reported more ball-of-foot, forefoot, heel, and plantar skin locations as sources of discomfort during activity than in the shod condition. The group vertical jump height was higher barefoot than shod (44.88 ± 8.44 cm and 43.25 ± 8.76 cm, respectively; P < .05), but no difference was seen for the hop. Men jumped and hopped higher than women under both footwear conditions (P < .05).
Conclusions: Participants initiating barefoot weightbearing exercise may experience slightly greater discomfort and less ease of performance in the initial transition from the shod condition, but may perform better in vertical jump. Whether those differences in experience persist over the long term will require longitudinal studies.
Physical activity in children may provide health benefits. We sought to consider the practice of soccer as a possible major factor in the development of the lower limb. The study is based on 3-year data for a group of children who practice this sport.
For 3 years we monitored 53 children who practiced soccer 3 times a week and had engaged in 2 years of continuous sports activity. Their mean ± SD age was 8.49 ± 2.01 years in the first year. Each year, Foot Posture Index, valgus index, subtalar joint axis, and Q angle for the knee were analyzed.
The mean ± SD Foot Posture Index scores ranged from 5.38 ± 1.79 in the right foot and 4.49 ± 1.67 in the left foot in the first year to 4.64 ± 2.51 and 4.34 ± 2.26, respectively, in the third year. The valgus index for the same period ranged from 14.05° ± 1.51° (right) and 13.88° ± 1.46° (left) to 13.09° ± 1.28° and 13.07° ± 1.07°, respectively. In the knee, the Q angle ranged from 12.83° ± 1.98° (right) and 12.74° ± 1.68° (left) to 13.17° ± 1.45° and 13.26° ± 1.46°, respectively. In the subtalar joint, the changes were 37.73% right and 30.19% left between the first and third years toward a neutral subtalar joint axis.
These results show that although playing soccer might cause structural changes in the lower limb, these alterations should not be considered harmful because they may be influenced by age as well.
The aim of this study was to determine the type of medial longitudinal arch (MLA) in students of Krakow universities, investigate the relationship between physical activity and the shaping of the feet, and examine the relationship between hallux valgus angle and the type of footwear chosen most often.
The study group consisted of 120 students, of which 56 respondents were students of the University School of Physical Education in Krakow, whereas the remaining 64 respondents were students of the Pedagogical University of Krakow. To evaluate the MLA, a podoscope was used, which allowed us to determine the length and width of the foot, and calculation of the Clarke angle, heel angle γ, and the angle of hallux valgus. All students were also subjected to a measurement of body weight and height.
There was a statistically significant relationship between physical activity and the Clarke angle in the group of women studying at the University School of Physical Education. There was no correlation between the hallux valgus angle and the type of footwear chosen most often in the research groups.
The most frequently diagnosed type of longitudinal and transverse arch foot in the research group was normal MLA. There was no relationship between physical activity and transverse arch foot in any of the research groups.
Foot problems are reported by approximately 70% to 80% of adults and 30% of children. One of the most important characteristics affecting its incidence is medial longitudinal arch. Assessing arch height provides valuable information for prescribing appropriate footwear that reduces the consequences of flatfoot. The main goals of this study were to explore epidemiologic factors that affect arch height and to predict arch height in children with flatfoot based on five variables using widely accessible, low-cost tools.
This study examined plantar arch height in 80 children with flatfoot aged 7 to 15 years. The evaluation criteria included low arch height, correct knee and heel position, and correct body symmetry. To measure arch height, the children sat in a chair and placed their feet on level ground. A caliper was used to measure the height between the bottom of the navicular tuberosity and the floor. Using least mean square error scheme, a multivariable model was fitted to the plantar arch height for all of the participants using independent variables, including age, Cole index, sex, place of residence, and physical activity.
Arch height increased as age increased in boys and girls in rural and urban areas. A significant increase in arch height occurred in 12- to 15-year-old boys and 10- to 15-year-old girls. In boys, arch height was 30% lower than in girls (P = .05). In children in cities, arch height was lower by 26% than in children in rural areas (P = .05). Arch height increased by 41.8% in inactive boys and by 115.2% in inactive girls in rural areas. It was reduced by 59.4% in boys and by 47.4% in girls as the Cole index increased from 82.2 to 152.0. The suggested model predicted arch height using the child’s age, Cole index, sex, place of residence, and physical activity (r > 0.97, error < 0.04 mm [2%], P < .05).
Flat feet in children may be affected by age, sex, Cole index, place of residence, and physical activity. The proposed model allows plantar arch heights in children with flat feet to be predicted without the need for sophisticated technology via controlling the child’s weight and physical activity for prescribing appropriate footwear. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(2): 114–121, 2012)
The Villiers-Saint-Denis Hospital in France specializes in the rehabilitation of and fitting of orthoses for lower-limb amputees, who frequently have diabetes mellitus. The percentage of partial-foot amputations has increased relative to the percentage of transtibial or transfemoral amputations. This article describes a complete range of orthoses and prostheses, adapted to each patient, that allow recovery of the standing position, gait ability, and physical activity. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(3): 221-228, 2003)
The diagnosis of Sever’s injury (apophysitis calcanei) has previously been partly based on radiographic findings in the calcaneal apophysis. Sclerosis and fragmentation have been supposed to represent signs of inflammation due to tractions from the Achilles tendon. The clinical findings, diagnostic criteria, and studied population are often poorly defined. We sought to define diagnostic criteria by analyzing clinical and radiographic characteristics in a population with Sever’s injury and to compare the findings with those of a control group of matched, symptom-free children.
We assessed 30 consecutive children with Sever’s injury with high levels of pain but high physical activity levels in sports activities and 15 pain-free matched controls.
One-leg heel standing showed 100% sensitivity; the squeeze test, 97%; and the palpation test, 80%. All three tests showed 100% specificity. All of the patients and controls showed increased density of the apophysis. Half of the pain-free controls showed fragmentation versus almost 90% of children with heel pain.
The diagnosis of Sever’s injury is clinical, not radiologic. Radiologic findings of increased density and fragmentation are found also in pain-free controls with high levels of physical activity and may, therefore, represent normal growth and development. We suggest that the diagnosis of Sever’s injury should be based on patient history and the results of two specific clinical tests. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(5): 361–368, 2013)
Up to 10% of people will experience heel pain. The purpose of this prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was to compare custom foot orthoses (CFO), prefabricated foot orthoses (PFO), and sham insole treatment for plantar fasciitis.
Seventy-seven patients with plantar fasciitis for less than 1 year were included. Outcome measures included first step and end of day pain, Revised Foot Function Index short form (FFI-R), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), activity monitoring, balance, and gait analysis.
The CFO group had significantly improved total FFI-R scores (77.4 versus 57.2; P = .03) without group differences for FFI-R pain, SF-36, and morning or evening pain. The PFO and CFO groups reported significantly lower morning and evening pain. For activity, the CFO group demonstrated significantly longer episodes of walking over the sham (P = .019) and PFO (P = .03) groups, with a 125% increase for CFOs, 22% PFOs, and 0.2% sham. Postural transition duration (P = .02) and balance (P = .05) improved for the CFO group. There were no gait differences. The CFO group reported significantly less stretching and ice use at 3 months.
The CFO group demonstrated 5.6-fold greater improvements in spontaneous physical activity versus the PFO and sham groups. All three groups improved in morning pain after treatment that included standardized athletic shoes, stretching, and ice. The CFO changes may have been moderated by decreased stretching and ice use after 3 months. These findings suggest that more objective measures, such as spontaneous physical activity improvement, may be more sensitive and specific for detecting improved weightbearing function than traditional clinical outcome measures, such as pain and disease-specific quality of life.
Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a prevalent degenerative disease in older adults. Treatment strategies, including insoles, focus on reducing pain and physical disability. In medial KOA, insoles have been studied extensively with conflicting results, possibly due to heterogeneity in outcome measures and the intervention. We sought to investigate the effect of custom-made laterally wedged insoles on pain, function, and quality of life in patients with medial KOA.
Fifty-one consecutive patients with medial KOA were prescribed custom-made insoles with arch support and a 5.0° to 8.7° lateral wedge. At follow-up, 42 of the 51 participants (22 men; mean age, 63 years; mean Kellgren-Lawrence, 3.4) participated. Retrospectively, participants were asked to rate the pain intensity in their affected knee before and after the intervention measured on a visual analog scale after 30 min of physical activity (primary outcome), at rest, at night, and after 50 m of walking. Additionally, they completed the Oxford Knee Score and the EQ-5D. The paired-samples t test was applied in the statistics.
The visual analog scale score after 30 min of physical activity was significantly reduced after the intervention (mean, 3.3 cm; 95% confidence interval, 2.1–4.5 cm; P < .001). The same significant changes were found in all of the secondary outcomes.
There was a significant reduction in pain and improvements in function and quality of life with custom-made laterally wedged insoles with arch support in older adults with mild-to-severe medial KOA. The customization of laterally wedged insoles may be essential for the effect in medial KOA. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(1): 50–55, 2013)
Irreducible metatarsophalangeal joint dislocation of the lesser toes is a rare injury. We present a 37-year-old man who was injured in a motorcycle accident and dislocated the first to third metatarsophalangeal joints and fractured the fourth metatarsal head. The left first metatarsophalangeal joint was reduced successfully through the closed method, but multiple attempts at closed reduction under local anesthesia failed to reduce the dislocated second and third metatarsophalangeal joints. We performed a dorsal incision between the second and third metatarsals, and the metatarsal heads were found to be entrapped under the plantar plate. Dislocation reduction was performed without damage to the plantar plate, and one Kirschner wire was used to fix the fourth metatarsal head fracture. The pin was removed 8 weeks after surgery, and the patient regained normal gait and returned to work and his previous physical activity level without recurrent dislocation. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(3): 236–240, 2013)