Background: It’s important to determine the plantar pressure distribution of school children by applying static and dynamic foot analyses using a pedobarography device. However, it’s difficult to obtain clear interpretations from results which can be explained by a large number of plantar pressure variables. The aim of this study is to use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to predict main components for reducing the size of big data sets, provide a practical overview and minimize information loss on the subject of plantar pressure assessment in youths.
Methods: In total, 112 school children were included in the current study (average age 10.58 ± 1.27 years, body mass index 18.86 ± 4.33 kg / m2). During the research, a Sensor Medica Freemed pedobarography device was used to obtain plantar pressure data. Each foot was divided into six anatomical regions and evaluated. Global and regional plantar pressure distribution, load and surface areas, pressure time integrals, weight ratios and geometric foot properties were calculated.
Results: PCA yielded ten principal component (PC) that together account for 81.88% of the variation in the data set and represent new and distinct patterns. Thus, 137 variables affecting the subject were reduced to ten components.
Conclusions: Static and dynamic plantar pressure distribution, which is affected by many variables, can be reduced to ten components by PCA, making the research results more concise and understandable.
Background: It is important to determine the plantar pressure distribution of schoolchildren by applying static and dynamic foot analyses using a pedobarography device. However, it is difficult to obtain clear interpretations from results that can be explained by a large number of plantar pressure variables. The aim of this study was to use principal component analysis (PCA) to predict the main components for reducing the size of big data sets, provide a practical overview, and minimize information loss on the subject of plantar pressure assessment in youths.
Methods: In total, 112 schoolchildren were included in the study (mean ± SD: age, 10.58 ± 1.27 years; body mass index, 18.86 ± 4.33). During the research, a pedobarography device was used to obtain plantar pressure data. Each foot was divided into six anatomical regions and evaluated. Global and regional plantar pressure distributions, load and surface areas, pressure-time integrals, weight ratios, and geometric foot properties were calculated.
Results: The PCA yielded ten principal components that together account for 81.88% of the variation in the data set and represent new and distinct patterns. Thus, 137 variables affecting the subject were reduced to ten components.
Conclusions: The numerous variables that affect static and dynamic plantar pressure distributions can be reduced to ten components by PCA, making the research results more concise and understandable.
Background: Although there is no ideal foot type for classical dancers, second-toe length seems to be a factor in the etiology of foot disorders in ballet dancers.
Methods: We investigated the relationship between second-toe length and foot disorders in 30 ballet dance students and 25 folk dance students. Second-toe length in relation to the hallux (longer or equal/shorter), hallux deformities, first metatarsophalangeal joint inflammation, number of callosities, and daily pain scores were recorded in both groups and compared.
Results: There was no statistically significant difference in toe length between the two groups (P > .05). Ballet dancers with equal-length or shorter second toes had lower pain scores, less first metatarsophalangeal joint inflammation, and fewer callosities in their feet compared with dancers with longer second toes.
Conclusions: Second-toe length seems to be a factor in the development of forefoot disorders in classical ballet dancers but not folk dancers. Dancers who have equal-length or shorter second toes in relation to the hallux may have fewer forefoot disorders as dance professionals. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(5): 385–388, 2007)
This study aims to investigate the effect of taekwondo footwear on unilateral stance stability and use of postural control strategies and to determine whether taekwondo footwear influences the somatosensory inputs for postural stability and postural strategies in young adults.
A quasi-randomized crossover trial was conducted on 33 healthy young adults at a university research laboratory. Independent variables, including shoe conditions (shoes on and shoes off) and visual conditions (eyes open and eyes closed), were taken into account. The center of gravity (COG) sway velocity in unilateral stance and the strategy scores in the sensory organization test were measured. No intervention was given to the participants.
There was no significant interaction between the two factors (the shoe and visual conditions) for COG sway velocities (P = .447) and strategy scores (P = .320). The shoe condition was not significant in either COG sway velocity (P = .484) or strategy score (P = .126). The visual condition was significant for COG sway velocity (P < .001) but not for strategy score (P = .573). The mean ± SD COG sway velocity with eyes open was 0.7° ± 0.2°/sec and with eyes closed was 1.7° ± 0.6°/sec (P < .001).
Taekwondo footwear is unlikely to affect somatosensory inputs and balance performance in young adults. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(4): 291–296, 2013)
Chondroblastoma located in the talus is a rare incidence, and due to the weightbearing duty of the talus, the results of local excision may not be favorable. While the volume of the tumor increases, more sophisticated techniques may be undertaken. Cell-free matrix application for extensive osteochondral defects is gaining popularity for its structural support when it is used with microfracture and autograft application. In this case report, we present a patient with 13 × 20 × 8mm–sized chondroblastoma located in the talus. After evaluation of the mass, we performed curettage, iliac crest autograft application, and augmentation with cell-free matrix. After uneventful clinical follow up, we present our patient's postoperative second year magnetic resonance imaging and functional status.
Background: Sever’s disease, also known as calcaneal apophysitis, is thought to be an inflammation of the apophysis of the heel, which is open in childhood. This condition has been commented on and looked at in a retrospective manner but has not been examined systematically. We assembled the most commonly cited theoretical causative models identified from the literature and tested them to determine whether any were risk factors.
Methods: Children with Sever’s disease were compared with a similarly aged nonsymptomatic population to determine whether identifiable risk factors exist for the onset of Sever’s disease. Areas raised in the literature and, hence, compared were biomechanical foot malalignment, as measured by Root et al–type foot measurements and the Foot Posture Index; ankle joint dorsiflexion, measured with a modified apparatus; body mass index; and total activity and types of sport played.
Results: Statistically significant but small odds ratios were found in forefoot to rearfoot determination and left ankle joint dorsiflexion.
Conclusions: This study suggests that there is no evidence to support that weight and activity levels are risk factors for Sever’s disease. The statistically significant but clinically negligible odds ratio (0.93) on the left side for decreased ankle joint dorsiflexion and statistically significant and clinically stronger odds ratio bilaterally for forefoot to rearfoot malalignment suggest that biomechanical malalignment is an area for further investigation. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(2): 133–145, 2011)
Background: Physical activity is important throughout the lifespan. Racket sports are popular with older adults and offer important social benefits. It is unknown how the physiologic changes attributable to aging affect lower limb loading during multidirectional sports and how this may influence footwear requirements. The purpose of this work was to explore the footwear needs and preferences of older adults in racket sports to inform footwear design and development.
Methods: Semistructured interviews were conducted online with 16 participants (56–92 years of age) who typically play racket sports at least once per week. Thematic analysis was used to group basic themes into organizing themes.
Results: The organizing themes were comfort (general comfort, pain-free, and cushioning), functionality (relating to the structure of the shoe and performance), and choice (mostly around the appearance of the shoe). Comfort was a key priority for the majority of participants, although it was often stressed that the footwear must also be supportive. Support was frequently defined in relation to preventing ankle sprains; however, when asked directly about managing injury risk, avoiding certain shots and appropriate grip were mentioned over support. More than half of participants reported needing a wide-fitting sport shoe, which limited the footwear selection available to them.
Conclusions: This study provides novel insight into the footwear requirements of active older adults, which can inform the development of footwear to facilitate safe and pain-free participation in sport for all.