Sensory Perception of Varied Shoe Masses in Running

Bahador KeshvariDepartment of Sport Equipment and Sport Materials, School of Engineering and Design, Technical University of Munich, Garching, Germany.

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Steven AlevrasDepartment of Sport Equipment and Sport Materials, School of Engineering and Design, Technical University of Munich, Garching, Germany.

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Veit SennerDepartment of Sport Equipment and Sport Materials, School of Engineering and Design, Technical University of Munich, Garching, Germany.

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Abstract

Background: Studies on the sensory perception of mass mostly focus on the hands rather than the feet. The aim of our study is to measure how accurately runners can perceive additional shoe mass in comparison to a control shoe (CS) while running, and moreover, whether there is a learning effect in the perception of mass. Indoor running shoes were categorized as a CS (283g) and shoes with four additional masses shoe 2 (+50g), shoe 3 (+150), shoe 4 (+250) and shoe 5 (+315).

Methods: Twenty-two participants attended a to the experiment divided into two sessions. In session one, participants ran on a treadmill for two minutes with the CS and then put on one set of weighted shoes and ran for another two minutes at a preferred velocity. A binary question was used after the pair test. This process was repeated for all the shoes to compare them with the CS.

Results: Based on our statistical analysis (mixed effect logistic regression), the independent variable, mass did have a significant effect on perceived mass, F (4,193) = 10.66, P < 0.0001, while repeating the task did not show a significant learning effect (F (1, 193) = 1.06, P = 0.30).

Conclusions: An increase of +150g is the just noticeable difference among other weighted shoes and Weber’s fraction is equal to 0.53 (150g : 283g). Learning effect did not improve by repeating the task in two sessions in the same day. This study facilitates our understanding about sense of force and enhances multibody simulation in running.

Corresponding author: Bahador Keshvari, MSc, Department of Sport Equipment and Sport Materials, School of Engineering and Design, Technical University of Munich, Boltzmannstrasse 15, 85747, Garching, Germany. (E-mail: Bahador.keshvari@tum.de)