Antifungal Activity of Efinaconazole Compared to Fluconazole, Itraconazole, and Terbinafine against Terbinafine- and Itraconazole-Resistant and -Susceptible Clinical Isolates of Dermatophytes, Candida, and Mold
Ahmed GamalCenter for Medical Mycology, and Integrated Microbiome Core, Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH.
Mohammed ElshaerCenter for Medical Mycology, and Integrated Microbiome Core, Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH. Clinical Pathology Department, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura, Egypt.
Mahmoud A. GhannoumCenter for Medical Mycology, and Integrated Microbiome Core, Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH. University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH.
Background: Recently, an increasing number of resistant-to-terbinafine dermatophytosis cases have been reported. Thus, identifying an alternative antifungal agent that possesses a broad-spectrum activity, including against resistant strains, is needed.
Methods: In this study, we compared the antifungal activity of efinaconazole to fluconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine against clinical isolates of dermatophyte, Candida, and molds using in vitro assays. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of each antifungal was quantified and compared. Both susceptible and resistant clinical isolates of Trichophyton mentagrophytes (n=16), T. rubrum (n=43), T. tonsurans (n=18), T. violaceum (n=4), Candida albicans (n=55), C. auris (n=30), Fusarium sp., Scedosporium sp., and Scopulariopsis sp. (n=15 for each) were tested.
Results: Our data shows that efinaconazole was the most active antifungal, compared to the other agents tested, against dermatophytes with MIC50 and MIC90 (Concentration that inhibited 50% and 90% of strains tested, respectively) values of 0.002 and 0.03 μg/ml, respectively. Fluconazole, itraconazole and terbinafine showed MIC50 and MIC90 values of 1 and 8 μg/ml, 0.03 and 0.25 μg/ml, and 0.031 and 16 μg/ml, respectively. Against Candida isolates, efinaconazole MIC50 and MIC90 values were 0.016 and 0.25 μg/ml, respectively, whereas fluconazole, itraconazole and terbinafine had MIC50 and the MIC90 values of 1 and 16 μg/ml, 0.25 and 0.5 μg/ml, and 2 and 8 μg/ml, respectively. Against various mold species, efinaconazole MIC values ranged from 0.016 and 2 μg/ml, compared to 0.5 to greater than 64 μg/ml for the comparators.
Conclusions: efinaconazole showed superior potent activity against a broad panel of susceptible and resistant dermatophyte, Candida, and mold isolates.
Corresponding author: Mahmoud Ghannoum, PhD, MBA, FAAM, FIDSA, Professor and Director, Center for Medical Mycology; Director, Integrated Microbiome, A Case Comprehensive Cancer Center Resource Core; Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106. (E-mail: email@example.com)