• 1

    Ponnapula P, Boberg JS: Lower extremity changes experienced during pregnancy. J Foot Ankle Surg 49: 452, 2010.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Maes R, Docjcinovic S, Andrianne Y, et al: Étude rétrospective sur les corrélations entre des paramètres podométriques et l'angle de Djian-Annonier dans l'étude de la voûte plantaire: résultats d'une série de 158 cas. Med Chirurg Pied 20: 11, 2004.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Östgaard HC, Roos-Hanson HC, Zetherström G: Regression of back and posterior pelvis pain after pregnancy. Spine 23: 2777, 1996.

  • 4

    Östgaard HC, Roos-Hanson HC, Zetherström G, et al: Reduction of back and posterior pelvis pain in pregnancy. Spine 8: 894, 1994.

  • 5

    Vleeming A, Albert HB, Östgaard HC, et al: European guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pelvic girdle pain. Spine 17: 797, 2008.

    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Kanakaris NK, Robert CS, Giannoudis PV: Pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain: an update. BMC Med 9: 15, 2011.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Van Wingerden JP, Vleeming A, Buyruk H, et al: Stabilization of the sacroiliac joint in vivo: verification of muscular contribution to force closure of the pelvis. Eur Spine J 13: 199, 2004.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Mens JMA, Vleeming A, Snijders CJ, et al: The active straight leg raising test and mobility of the pelvic joints. Eur Spine J 8: 468, 1999.

  • 9

    Stuge B, Morkved S, Haug Dahl H, et al: Abdominal and pelvic floor muscle function in women with and without long lasting pelvic girdle pain. Man Ther 11: 287, 2006.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Calguneri M, Bird HA, Wright V: Changes in joint laxity occurring during pregnancy. Ann Rheum Dis 41: 126, 1982.

  • 11

    Chiu MC, Wu HC, Chang LY: Gait speed and gender effects on center of pressure progression during normal walking. Gait Posture 37: 43, 2013.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Titianova E, Mateev P, Tarkka I: Footprint analysis of gait using a pressure sensor system. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 14: 275, 2004.

  • 13

    Whitcome K, Shapiro L, Lieberman D: Fetal load and the evolution of lumbar lordosis in bipedal hominins. Nature 450: 1075, 2007.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Oliveira LF, Vieira T, Macedo A, et al: Postural sway changes during pregnancy: a descriptive study using stabilometry. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 147: 25, 2009.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Nyska M, Sofer D, Porat A, et al: Plantar foot pressures in pregnant women. Isr J Med Sci 33: 139, 1997.

  • 16

    Wu W, Meijer O, Bruijn S, et al: Gait in pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain: amplitudes, timing, and coordination of horizontal trunk rotations. Eur Spine J 17: 1160, 2008.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Goldberg J, Besser M, Selby-Silverstein L: Changes in foot function throughout pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 97: 39, 2001.

  • 18

    Foti T, Davids J, Bagley A: A biomechanical analysis of gait during pregnancy. J Bone Joint Surg 82: 625, 2000.

  • 19

    Branco M, Santos-Rocha R, Aguiar L, et al: Kinematic analysis of gait in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. J Pregnancy 2013: 718095, 2013.

  • 20

    Jang J, Hsiao KT, Hsiao-Wecksler E: Balance (perceived and actual) and preferred stance width during pregnancy. Clin Biomech 23: 468, 2008.

    • Crossref
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    McCrory JL, Chambers AJ, Daftary A, et al: Dynamic postural stability during advancing pregnancy. J Biomech 43: 2434, 2010.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Gilleard W: Trunk motion and gait characteristics of pregnant women when walking: report of a longitudinal study with a control group. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 13: 71, 2013.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Lymbery JK, Gilleard W: The stance phase of walking during late pregnancy: temporospatial and ground reaction force variables. JAPMA 95: 247, 2005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Day BL, Steiger MJ, Thompson PD, et al: Effect of vision and stance width on human body motion when standing: implications for afferent control of lateral sway. J Physiol 469: 479, 1993.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Pregnancy and Pelvic Girdle Pain

Analysis of Center of Pressure During Gait

View More View Less
  • 1 Laboratory of Functional Anatomy, Faculty of Motor Sciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium.
Restricted access

Background:

A woman's body undergoes many changes during pregnancy, and it adapts by developing compensatory strategies, which can be sources of pain. We sought to analyze the effects of pregnancy and pelvic girdle pain (PGP) on center of pressure (COP) parameters during gait at different speeds.

Methods:

Sixty-one healthy pregnant women, 66 women with PGP between 18 and 27 weeks of pregnancy, and 22 healthy nonpregnant women walked at different velocities (slow, preferential, and fast) on a walkway with built-in pressure sensors. An analysis of variance was performed to determine the effects of gait speed and group on COP parameters.

Results:

In healthy pregnant women and women with PGP, COP parameters were significantly modified compared with those in nonpregnant women (P < .01). Support time was increased regardless of gait speed, and anteroposterior COP displacement was significantly decreased for women with PGP compared with healthy pregnant women. In addition, mediolateral COP displacement was significantly decreased in pregnant women compared with nongravid women.

Conclusions:

Gait speed influenced COP displacement and velocity parameters, and gait velocity potentiated the effect of pregnancy on the different parameters. Pelvic girdle pain had an influence on COP anteroposterior length only. With COP parameters being only slightly modified by PGP, the gait of pregnant women with PGP was similar to that of healthy pregnant women but differed from that of nonpregnant women.

Corresponding author: Floriane Kerbourc'h, MS, Laboratory of Functional Anatomy, Faculty of Motor Sciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 808 Route de Lennik, Bruxelles, 1070, Belgium. (E-mail: floriane.kerbourch@ulb.ac.be)